Impacts of Specific Incivilities on Responses to Crime and Local Commitment, 1979-1994: [Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Seattle] (ICPSR 2520)
Principal Investigator(s): Taylor, Ralph B., Temple University, Department of Criminal Justice
This data collection was designed to test the "incivilities thesis": that incivilities such as extant neighborhood physical conditions of disrepair or abandonment and troubling street behaviors contribute to residents' concerns for personal safety and their desire to leave their neighborhood. The collection examines between-individual versus between-neighborhood and between-city differences with respect to fear of crime and neighborhood commitment and also explores whether some perceived incivilities are more relevant to these outcomes than others. The data represent a secondary analysis of five ICPSR collections: (1) CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH AND LOW CRIME NEIGHBORHOODS IN ATLANTA, 1980 (ICPSR 7951), (2) CRIME CHANGES IN BALTIMORE, 1970-1994 (ICPSR 2352), (3) CITIZEN PARTICIPATION AND COMMUNITY CRIME PREVENTION, 1979: CHICAGO METROPOLITAN AREA SURVEY (ICPSR 8086), (4) CRIME, FEAR, AND CONTROL IN NEIGHBORHOOD COMMERCIAL CENTERS: MINNEAPOLIS AND ST. PAUL, 1970-1982 (ICPSR 8167), and (5) TESTING THEORIES OF CRIMINALITY AND VICTIMIZATION IN SEATTLE, 1960-1990 (ICPSR 9741). Part 1, Survey Data, is an individual-level file that contains measures of residents' fear of victimization, avoidance of dangerous places, self-protection, neighborhood satisfaction, perceived incivilities (presence of litter, abandoned buildings, vandalism, and teens congregating), and demographic variables such as sex, age, and education. Part 2, Neighborhood Data, contains crime data and demographic variables from Part 1 aggregated to the neighborhood level, including percentage of the neighborhood that was African-American, gender percentages, average age and educational attainment of residents, average household size and length of residence, and information on home ownership.
These data are available to the general public.
This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Taylor, Ralph B. IMPACTS OF SPECIFIC INCIVILITIES ON RESPONSES TO CRIME AND LOCAL COMMITMENT, 1979-1994: [ATLANTA, BALTIMORE, CHICAGO, MINNEAPOLIS-ST. PAUL, AND SEATTLE]. ICPSR02520-v1. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University [producer], 1996. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1998. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02520.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02520.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (96-IJ-CX-0067)
Scope of Study
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation: (1) Part 1: Individuals, (2) Part 2: Neighborhoods.
Universe: Surveys of neighborhoods and residents in Atlanta, Baltimore, Chicago, Minneapolis-St. Paul, and Seattle.
Data Types: census/enumeration data, and survey data
Study Purpose: This data collection is a secondary analysis of five other studies to test the "incivilities thesis": that incivilities such as extant neighborhood physical conditions of disrepair or abandonment and troubling street behaviors contribute to residents' concerns for personal safety and their desire to leave their neighborhood. It was designed to answer two key questions: (1) How much variation in the fear of crime and in neighborhood commitment arises from differences between cities or between neighborhoods versus differences between neighbors? (2) Are some specific perceived incivilities more relevant to fear of crime and neighborhood commitment than others?
Study Design: Studies were chosen for this reanalysis based on the following conditions: (1) the areas had not been studied in DISORDER AND COMMUNITY DECLINE IN 40 NEIGHBORHOODS OF THE UNITED STATES, 1977-1983 (ICPSR 8944), with the exception of Atlanta, (2) the surveys were conducted within one city or metropolitan area and clustered residents by neighborhood, (3) the surveys included a substantial number of people in each neighborhood, and (4) the surveys included at least some of the same perceived incivilities. Three key incivilities that were present across all five surveys were presence of abandoned buildings, teens congregating, and vandalism. Litter was a variable in all surveys save the Chicago study. These four incivilities were chosen for inclusion in this collection.
Sample: The following describes the sampling methods used in the individual studies that comprise this data collection: For the Atlanta data, a stratified random sample of Atlanta households was drawn. In Baltimore, 30 neighborhoods were selected using stratified resampling based on crime data from an earlier random sample of 66. The original Chicago study employed a random sample of respondents from the Chicago metropolitan area, including suburbs. This reanalysis used only the urban respondents and only the neighborhoods with at least five respondents per neighborhood. The Minneapolis-St. Paul sample was based on three criteria: percent minority change from 1970 to 1980, an observational measure of disorder in each commercial center, and person crime rates for the entire commercial and residential area. These areas were micro-neighborhoods centered around small commercial centers. The Seattle data were based on a multistage clustered sampling of 600 selected city blocks and immediate neighbors on these blocks in 100 census tracts.
ICPSR 7951, 2352, 8086, 8167, and 9741
Description of Variables: Part 1, Survey Data, contains measures of residents' fear of victimization, avoidance of dangerous places, self-protection, neighborhood satisfaction, perceived incivilities (presence of abandoned buildings, litter, vandalism, and teens congregating), and demographic variables such as residents' sex, age, and education. Part 2, Neighborhood Data, contains crime data and demographic variables from Part 1 aggregated to the neighborhood level, including percentage of the neighborhood that was African-American, gender percentages, average age and educational attainment of residents, average household size and length of residence, and information on home ownership.
Response Rates: The survey response rate for the reanalyzed studies was 77.3 percent in Atlanta, 66.5 percent in Chicago, 54 percent in Minneapolis-St. Paul, and 74.1 percent in Seattle. The response rate for Baltimore was 76 percent.
Presence of Common Scales: Several Likert-type scales were used.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Standardized missing values.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 1998-10-08
- 2006-03-30 File CB2520.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
- 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
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