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Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Series

The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multi-site, longitudinal, epidemiologic study designed to examine the health of women during their middle years. The study examines the physical, biological, psychological and social changes during this transitional period. The goal of SWAN's research is to help scientists, health care providers and women learn how mid-life experiences affect health and quality of life during aging.

SWAN began in 1994 and is co-sponsored by the National Institute on Aging (NIA), the National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), Office of Research on Women's Health, and the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Between 1996 and 1997, 3,302 participants joined SWAN through seven designated research centers. Each follow-up wave included participants from the initial wave. The research centers are located in the following communities: Ypsilanti and Inkster, MI (University of Michigan), Boston, MA (Massachusetts General Hospital), Chicago, IL (Rush Presbyterian-St. Luke's Medical Center), Alameda and Contra Costa County, CA (University of California Davis and Kaiser Permanente), Los Angeles, CA (University of California at Los Angeles), Hackensack, NJ (Hackensack University Medical Center), and Pittsburgh, PA (University of Pittsburgh). SWAN participants represent five racial/ethnic groups and a variety of backgrounds and cultures.

Data in the Series

Related Publications

Most Recent Publications

2016
Solomon, Daniel H.,  Ruppert, Kristine,  Greendale, Gail A.,  Lian, Yinjuan,  Selzer, Faith,  Finkelstein, Joel S. Medication use by race and ethnicity in women transitioning through the menopause: A study of women's health across the nation drug epidemiology study. Journal of Women's Health. 25, (6), 599-605.
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2010
Ferrell, Rebecca J.,  Sowers, MaryFran . Longitudinal, epidemiologic studies of female reproductive aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 1204, 188-197.
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2006
Gold, Ellen B.,  Colvin, Alicia,  Avis, Nancy,  Bromberger, Joyce,  Greendale, Gail A.,  Powell, Lynda,  Sternfeld, Barbara,  Matthews, Karen . Longitudinal analysis of the association between vasomotor symptoms and race/ethnicity across the menopausal transition: Study of women?s health across the nation. American Journal of Public Health. 96, (7), 1226-1235.
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2004
Avis, N.E.,  Assmann, S.F.,  Kravitz, H.M.,  Ganz, P.A.,  Ory, M. Quality of life in diverse groups of midlife women: Assessing the influence of menopause, health stuatus and psychosocial and demographic factors. Quality of Life Research. 13, (5), 933-946.
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2003
Kravitz, Howard M.,  Ganz, Patricia A.,  Bromberger, Joyce,  Powell, Lynda H.,  Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim,  Meyer, Peter M. Sleep difficulty in women at midlife: A community survey of sleep and the menopausal transition. Menopause. 10, (1), 19-28.
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2003
Luborsky, J.L.,  Meyer, P.,  Sowers, M.F.,  Gold, E.B.,  Santoro, N. Premature menopause in a multi-ethnic population study of the menopause transition. Human Reproduction. 18, (1), 199-206.
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2003
Sowers, MaryFran,  Crawford, Sybil L.,  Cauley, Jane A.,  Stein, Evan . Association of lipoprotein(a), insulin resistance, and reproductive hormones in a multiethnic cohort of pre- and perimenopausal women (The SWAN Study). American Journal of Cardiology. 92, (5), 533-537.
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2002
Crawford, Sybil L.,  Johannes, Catherine B.,  Stellato, Rebecca K. Assessment of Digit Preference in Self-reported Year at Menopause: Choice of an Appropriate Reference Distribution. American Journal of Epidemiology. 156, (7), 676-683.
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2001
Avis, Nancy E.,  Stellato, Rebecca,  Crawford, Sybil,  Bromberger, Joyce,  Ganz, Patricia,  Cain, Virginia,  Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie . Is there a menopause syndrome? Menopausal status and symptoms across racial/ethnic groups. Social Science and Medicine. 52, (3), 345-356.
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2001
Bromberger, Joyce T.,  Meyer, Peter M.,  Kravitz, Howard M.,  Sommer, Barbara,  Cordal, Adriana,  Powell, Lynda,  Ganz, Patricia A.,  Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim . Psychologic Distress and Natural Menopause: A Multiethnic Community Study. American Journal of Public Health. 91, (9), 1435-1442.
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