National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, Waves II-IV (ICPSR 4146) RSS

Alternate Title:  NDATSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey (NDATSS) is a longitudinal program of research into organizational structures, operating characteristics, and treatment modalities of outpatient drug treatment programs in the United States. This is done through interviews with program directors and clinical supervisors. In some publications, this research is referred to as the Outpatient Drug Abuse Treatment Studies (ODATS). Data being released include Wave II (1988), Wave III (1990), and Wave IV (1995).

Access Notes

Dataset(s)

Study Description

Citation

D'Aunno, Thomas, and Richard Price. National Drug Abuse Treatment System Survey, Waves II-IV. ICPSR04146-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-07-30. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04146.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (5ROI-DA03272)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   AIDS, alcohol abuse, drug abuse, drug treatment, health care services, HIV, intervention, methadone maintenance, substance abuse, substance abuse treatment, treatment facilities, treatment programs

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1988
  • 1990
  • 1995

Date of Collection:  

  • 1988
  • 1990
  • 1995

Unit of Observation:   facility

Universe:   Outpatient Drug Abuse Units in the United States

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The data were collected by Survey Research Operations, Institute for Social Research, University of Michigan.

Wave I is not planned for public release because it had a significantly different sample design than the other waves.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   To understand the organizational determinants of treatment practices in a national sample of substance abuse treatment units.

Study Design:   Stratified Random Sample

Sample:  

Though Wave I is not a part of this public release, its sample design is relevant due to the longitudinal design of the study. A stratified random sample of n = 413 outpatient drug treatment units were selected. The sample was selected from national databases of federally supported treatment programs and was restricted to outpatient drug treatment programs that were drug-free (i.e., they did not use methadone or related treatments). Alcohol treatment programs were excluded. The primary stratification criteria included: location (inner city, suburban, rural), funding agency (National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) or National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA)), and program classification (freestanding versus those based in a community mental health clinic (CMHC)).

Wave II: As mentioned previously, the survey population for Wave II was expanded to include methadone-based treatment programs. The Survey Research Center?s (SRC) sampling section developed a comprehensive national frame of approximately 8,149 program listings to meet the expanded sample requirements. The primary stratification criteria of the National Sample Frame of Drug Treatment Programs (NSFDTP) had: public versus private program, methadone versus drug-free treatment, and program type (CMHC, hospital, or freestanding). After selecting a stratified random sample, screening for eligibility, and selecting a stratified subsample, 438 programs were chosen for inclusion in the survey. In addition to these programs, an additional 207 programs from Wave I were deemed to be eligible programs and were added as a recontact sample, A total of 575 programs provided a program director interview, a clinical supervisor interview, or both.

Wave III: No sample of new programs was included in Wave III, which was a longitudinal follow-up of the programs that were successfully interviewed in Wave II. In Wave III, 550 programs were found to be still operating and eligible, and 481 total programs provided a program director interview, a clinical supervisor interview, or both.

Wave IV: This wave included both a longitudinal sample of those programs that completed waves II and III, and was also supplemented with a new stratified random sample from a completely updated National Frame of Substance Abuse Treatment Programs (NFSATP).

Interviews were attempted with the 429 programs that participated in Waves II and III, and were also still operating and eligible. In Wave IV, 387 of these programs provided a program director interview, a clinical supervisor interview, or both.

The sample frame for the new supplemental cross sectional sample is a subset of the NFSATP. The full NFSATP database is the integration of four drug treatment program databases:

  • National Facilities Register (NFR), 1992 NDATUS (a predecessor to the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services, N-SSATS) -- provided to the SRC by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA).
  • The 1994 American Hospital Association (AHA) Survey -- added to ensure comprehensive coverage of hospital-based programs.
  • 1994 Food and Drug Admisistration (FDA) List of Licensed Methadone Treatment Programs -- printed list provided to SRC by the FDA at the request of SAMHSA.
  • The Survey Sampling, Inc. (SSI) Business Data Base -- purchased in order to ensure comprehensive coverage of privately operated programs.

The Wave IV sample was assigned to 12 stratum codes as defined by the same primary stratification criteria as existed for the Wave II sample (public vs. private program, methadone vs. drug-free treatment, and program -- CMHC, hospital, or freestanding). However, the database components of the NFSATP did not always supply all the necessary information needed to classify each program to one of the 12 strata. These programs with incomplete information for stratum assignments were, as a rule, included in the private, nonhospital, nonmethadone stratum.

It was determined that the outpatient drug treatment program sector that had experienced the most growth correlated with the private, nonhospital, nonmethadone stratum. Thus it was decided that the supplemental sample would be a subsample of the NFSATP programs that were known to be private, nonhospital, nonmethadone programs or for which there was incomplete information for proper classification into one of the 12 stratum as described above. After initial screening of this subsample for eligibility, 270 programs were determined to be eligible for interviews. Of these, 231 total programs provided a program director interview, a clinical supervisor interview, or both. Based on the more complete information gathered from the interviews, 81 programs were reclassified into one of the other 11 stratum.

Weight:  

Each of the three data files come with two weight variables, a trimmed weight and a centered weight. Both of these weight variables are derived from an original weight variable (not included in the public data file). For each wave of the data, the original weight variable was produced by the principal investigator in order to reduce bias, which may be associated with unequal sample selection probabilities and nonresponse. Trimmed and centered weights are defined as follows:

Trimmed Weight: One disadvantage of weighting to decrease bias is that it might increase the variance of weighted estimates. When it appears that a few weights are disproportionately affecting the variance, then outlier weights are often trimmed. With trimming it is implicitly assumed that the potential increase in bias is small relative to the reduction in variance. The ultimate goal of weight trimming is to reduce the sampling variance more than enough to compensate for the possible increase in bias and, thereby, to reduce the mean squared error. For this study, the trimming consisted of reducing outlier weights to a value slightly larger than the next largest value within the same stratum. To maintain the total sum of all weight values, the excess "trimmed" weight was then redistributed to the other weight values within the same stratum.

Centered Weight: When a typical weight is applied, the weighted estimates are inflated to the full population value from which the sample was drawn. This results in standard errors that are inappropriately deflated. Centered weights are commonly used to avoid this problem. The centered weights for this study are calculated by taking the trimmed weight for each case and dividing by the mean of the trimmed weight variable.

Mode of Data Collection:   telephone interview

Description of Variables:   The data include variables from the following major areas of investigation: referral sources, client demographics, types of problems treated, unit staffing, diagnostic and assessment patterns, treatment goals, services provided, end-of-treatment outcomes, quality improvement efforts, funding, licensing and accreditation, collaboration and competition with other treatment organizations, and recent programmatic changes.

Response Rates:  

1988: 86 percent

1990: 88 percent

1995: 87 percent

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Related Publications

Variables

Browse Matching Variables

DS1: Wave II, 1988

C5G.REVIEW REQ BY ST DP MEN HLTH:Y/N?
Which of the following agencies conduct such a review? Is it the ...State Office or Department of Mental Health?
E8B.MJR REF SOU:MN HLTH:Y/N?
Is this organization one of the following: (Is this source) a mental health center?
H2.# YRS:WORK IN FIELD
How many years have you been working in the field of substance abuse treatment or mental health?--# OF YEARS
SA1G REFRL FRM MH AGENCY
In the past year, to what extent has your outpatient unit received referrals from ...mental health agencies?
SA6F REFER TO MH AGENCY
To what extent does your unit refer outpatient substance abuse clients to ...mental health agencies?
SC10 '%' CL:ASSES MH PROBS
For what percent of outpatient substance abuse clients does your unit assess current or past mental health problems?
SC26C '%'CL:TRMT-MH PROBS
(What percent of your unit's outpatient substance abuse clients receive) treatment for mental health problems?
SE2 # YRS:WORK IN FIELD
How many years have you been working in the field of substance abuse treatment or mental health?--# OF YEARS
E15.KIND OTH U REC CLIENT
What kind of unit is that? Is it a hospital unit, a mental health center unit, a free standing substance abuse unit, or something else?
E1C.EXTN MNHLTH SATU COMPETN
To what extent is your outpatient unit in competition for personnel, clients, and funds with mental health center- sponsored substance abuse units? (Would you say to no extent, a little, some, great, or to a very great extent?)

DS2: Wave III, 1990

D5E U REVU:ST DEPT MH:Y/N?
Which of the following agencies conduct such a review? Is it the ...State Office or Department of Mental Health?
C9 OWNR IS HOSP,MHC,O
Which of the following describe the organization that owns your outpatient unit? Is it a hospital, a mental health center, or some other kind of organization?
C14 MANAGR HOSP,MHC,O
Which of the following describe the organization that manages your outpatient unit? Is it a hospital, a mental health center, or some other kind of organization?
A1D. EXTENT REF FRM MH AGENCY
In the last 12 months, to what extent has your outpatient unit received referrals from the following: ...mental health agencies?
E6 PERC OSAT CL:ASSESS MH PROB
(For what percent of outpatient substance abuse clients does your unit) assess current or past mental health problems?
F4B PERC OSAT CL:TMT-MH PROBS FR UNT/OTH
(What percent of your unit's outpatient substance abuse clients receive) treatment for mental health problems?
H2 #YRS:WORK IN FIELD OF SA OR MH
How many years have you been working in the field of substance abuse treatment or mental health?--# OF YEARS
C4 PART-OF:HOSP,MHC,O
Which of the following describe the organization that your outpatient unit is part of? Is it a hospital, a mental health center, or some other kind of organization?
E1D COMPETE:EXTNT MHC SATU
(To what extent is your outpatient unit in competition for personnel, clients, and funds) with mental health center- sponsored substance abuse units? (Would you say to no extent, a little, some, great, or to a very great extent?)
A4E. EXTENT REF TO MH AGENCY
To what extent does your unit refer outpatient substance abuse clients to each of the following for treatment or for other services not provided by your unit? ...mental health agencies?

DS3: Wave IV, 1995

E5.PERC- ASSESS MENTAL HEALTH PROBLS
(For what percent of outpatient substance abuse clients does your unit) assess current or past mental health problems?
D5e.BY STATE MENTAL HEALTH:Y/N?
Which of the following agencies conduct such a review? Is it the ...State Office or Department of Mental Health?
F52i.DET IF TX PLANS ON MH PROBS:Y/N?
Does your outpatient unit routinely determine...whether treatment plans address mental health problems?
C4.LARGER ORGN HOSP/MHC/OTHR
Which of the following describe the organization or type of facility that your outpatient unit is part of? Is it a hospital, a mental health center or some other kind oforganization?
C9.OWNING ORGN HOSP/MHC/OTHR
Which of the following describe the organization or type of facility that your outpatient unit is owned by? Is it a hospital, a mental health center or some other kind of organization?
% ALL CLIENTS ARE DUAL DIAGNOSIS
Currently, what percent of your unit's active outpatient substance abuse clients have both mental health and substance abuse problems?
A1c. PERC CLI R/B MH PROVIDERS
In the most recent complete fiscal year, what percent of your unit's outpatient substance abuse clients were referred by each of the following: ...mental health agencies or providers?
A2c. PERC FEM CLI R/B MH PROVIDERS
In the most recent complete fiscal year, what percent of your unit's female outpatient substance abuse clients were referred by each of the following? ...mental health agencies or providers?
A3c. PERC OSAT CLI R/T MH PROVIDERS
Of your unit's outpatient substance abuse clients who are referred to outside providers, what percent are referred to each of the following types of providers: ...mental health agencies or providers?
C18d.PERC CLI PRIOR TX MH PROBLEM
What percent of outpatient substance abuse clients in treatment at your unit during the last 30 days entered treatment under the following conditions: ...with prior treatment for a mental health problem?

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