Schools and Families Educating (SAFE) Children Study [Chicago, IL]: 1997-2008 (ICPSR 34368)

Alternate Title:   SAFE Children, 1997-2008

Principal Investigator(s): Tolan, Patrick, University of Virginia. Center to Promote Effective Youth Development; Gorman-Smith, Deborah, University of Chicago. School of Social Service Administration; Henry, David, University of Illinois at Chicago. Institute for Health Research and Policy; Schoeny, Michael, University of Illinois at Chicago. Institute for Health Research and Policy

Summary:

The Schools and Families Education (SAFE) Children Study was a randomized control trial designed to test the efficacy of a family-based comprehensive preventive intervention, with children living in inner-city Chicago and entering the 1st grade, for effects on key risk markers for later drug and other substance use.

A total of 11 waves of data were collected over the course of three phases and approximately 13 years. In the spring of 1997, there were 424 kindergarten students and primary caregivers recruited to participate in this study. Wave 1 began while the children were in 1st grade. These data contain survey responses for students, their primary caregivers, and their teachers across 27 datasets.

Phase I of the study was to assess the intervention provided in the 1st grade. Half of the families were randomly selected to receive the intervention. The other half were assigned to the control group. Phase II of the study was set-up to give half of the intervention group a booster, a second intervention training. Lastly, there was a Phase III which sought to assess the long-term affects of the initial and booster interventions.

The first dataset (DS1) provides an overview of the study which includes variables for the study design and survey administration. This first file contains 38 variables.

Survey responses were obtained from students nine times beginning in 1st grade and ending in 12th grade. Children were not surveyed in waves 3 and 7. The student survey response data are in DS2 through DS10. The datasets for waves 1, 2, 4, and 5 contain only 50 variables. Waves 6, 8, and 9 contain 424 variables. Waves 10 and 11 contain 1,394 variables. Each of the three phases contain almost identical variables within their respective waves.

The children's primary caregivers were also surveyed nine times over the survey period. Primary caregivers were not surveyed in waves 3 and 7. These data are contained in DS11 through DS19. The primary caregiver files vary in the number and content of variables. On average each wave contains about 1,060 variables with a low of 470 on up to a high of 1,435.

Teachers were surveyed during each of the first eight waves of the study. The teacher data are in DS20 through DS27. Waves 1 and 2 contain just over 120 variables. Waves 3, 4, and 5 contain 145 variables. And waves 6, 7, and 8 contain 173 variables. Each of the three phases contain almost identical variables within their respective waves.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
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DS1:  Data Overview - Download All Files (9.127 MB)
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DS2:  Child - Wave 1 - Download All Files (9.93 MB)
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DS3:  Child - Wave 2 - Download All Files (9.652 MB)
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DS4:  Child - Wave 4 - Download All Files (9.632 MB)
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DS5:  Child - Wave 5 - Download All Files (9.623 MB)
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DS6:  Child - Wave 6 - Download All Files (16.705 MB)
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DS7:  Child - Wave 8 - Download All Files (14.078 MB)
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DS8:  Child - Wave 9 - Download All Files (14.522 MB)
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DS9:  Child - Wave 10 - Download All Files (28.16 MB)
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DS10:  Child - Wave 11 - Download All Files (36.336 MB)
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DS11:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 1 - Download All Files (28.436 MB)
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DS12:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 2 - Download All Files (17.95 MB)
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DS13:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 4 - Download All Files (33.677 MB)
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DS14:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 5 - Download All Files (32.733 MB)
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DS15:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 6 - Download All Files (36.178 MB)
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DS16:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 8 - Download All Files (34.26 MB)
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DS17:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 9 - Download All Files (33.129 MB)
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DS18:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 10 - Download All Files (20.661 MB)
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DS19:  Primary Caregiver - Wave 11 - Download All Files (26.048 MB)
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DS20:  Teacher - Wave 1 - Download All Files (10.97 MB)
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DS21:  Teacher - Wave 2 - Download All Files (10.584 MB)
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DS22:  Teacher - Wave 3 - Download All Files (11.156 MB)
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DS23:  Teacher - Wave 4 - Download All Files (11.136 MB)
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DS24:  Teacher - Wave 5 - Download All Files (11.171 MB)
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DS25:  Teacher - Wave 6 - Download All Files (11.589 MB)
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DS26:  Teacher - Wave 7 - Download All Files (11.595 MB)
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DS27:  Teacher - Wave 8 - Download All Files (11.563 MB)
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Study Description

Citation

Tolan, Patrick, Deborah Gorman-Smith, David Henry, and Michael Schoeny. Schools and Families Educating (SAFE) Children Study [Chicago, IL]: 1997-2008 . ICPSR34368-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-03-31. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34368.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34368.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (5 R01 DA020829)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    alcohol abuse, children, classroom environment, delinquent behavior, depression (psychology), domestic violence, drug abuse, drug use, family relationships, fear of crime, intervention, parent child relationship, parents, prenatal care, reading, school age children, sexual abuse, sexual behavior, stress, substance abuse, teacher attitudes, teacher student relationship, teachers, tutoring, youths

Geographic Coverage:    Chicago, Illinois, United States

Time Period:   

  • 1997--2008

Unit of Observation:    Individual

Universe:    Kindergarten students attending inner-city neighborhood public schools in Chicago, IL in 1997. The children's primary caregivers and teachers were also included as part of the study.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The variable SAFE_ID, present in all 27 datasets, can be used to link the files together.

Each of the 27 datasets contains a case for all 424 participating families. Missing data codes were assigned to signify which individuals did not participate in a particular wave of data collection.

Methodology

Study Purpose:    SAFE Children was a randomized control trial designed to test the efficacy of a family-based comprehensive preventive intervention with 1st grade children, living in inner-city Chicago. It tested for effects on key risk markers for later drug and other substance use. The intervention aimed to improve parenting skills in order to facilitate children's academic success and social adjustment.

Study Design:   

Over a 9-month period during 1st grade, the study intervention combined components focused on (1) enhancing parent and child orientation to and involvement with school; (2) academic tutoring; (3) social competence and peer relations of the child; and (4) parent and family functioning to enhance the child's academic performance, the parental investment in the child's well-being and development, and the social competence and self-control of the child. Just over half of the participants (225) were randomly selected to receive the intervention. The other 199 families were assigned to the control group.

The study consisted of three phases in which there were 11 waves of data collection spanning the course of approximately 13 years. In the spring of 1997, there were 424 kindergarten students and primary caregivers willing to participate in this study. The children's teachers were also included in the study.

Phase I involved the children and primary caregivers receiving the intervention treatment or assigned to the control group beginning in the 1st grade (Wave 1). Phase I also included waves 2, 4, and 5 for both children and primary caregivers. These two groups were not administered surveys in wave 3. Teachers were interviewed in waves 1 to 5.

A second phase of the study, SAFE Children II, was designed to differentiate the effects specifically due to a second intervention (a "booster") from among those randomly selected to receive the intervention in 1st grade. About half of the participants (114) were randomly selected to receive the booster intervention during the 4th grade. Phase II covered waves 6 through 9. Children and primary caregivers were not administered a survey during wave 7. Teachers were interviewed in wave 6 through 8.

In the third phase of the study, SAFE Children III, two waves of data were collected to assess the long-term effects of the initial and booster interventions. Only children and primary caregivers were surveyed in the third phase. Surveys for teachers stopped after wave 8.

Sample:   

Since the principal investigators' interest was in risk inherent to the setting, they solicited participants not because of individual or family characteristics but because they attended schools that served inner-city neighborhoods. A total of seven elementary schools were selected to participate.

In the spring of 1997, the parents of all kindergarten children in each of the seven schools were contacted and asked to participate in the study. A total of 507 families were eligible to participate. This was based on their residence being located within the neighborhood boundaries of the school that their children would attend in the fall of the children's 1st grade year (although recruitment occurred in the spring of their kindergarten year). Of these, 424 families (84 percent) consented to participate and completed at least one of the baseline assessments.

Time Method:    Longitudinal: Panel

Weight:    No weights were utilized in this study.

Mode of Data Collection:    audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI), computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI), paper and pencil interview (PAPI), on-site questionnaire

Description of Variables:   

The first dataset (DS1) provides an overview of the study. Firstly, it contains information on how many days elapsed between each wave's survey administration from the start of the study for each child, primary caregiver, and teacher. Secondly, this dataset contains variables describing the design of the study - whether or not the family was part of the intervention or control group, and if the family got the "booster" in wave 4. Lastly, this dataset contains the basic demographics of each child - gender and race.

The children's responses are contained in datasets 2 through 10. The main sections that children were asked about include emotional recognition, feelings towards school, parenting practices, peer relations, self-reported delinquency, safety, perceived competence, sensations seeking, stress and coping, depression, service use, pro-social behaviors, family relationships, sexual behavior, dating violence, substance use, alcohol use, neighborhood characteristics, fear of crime, and future aspirations.

The primary caregiver responses are contained in datasets 11 through 19. They were asked about the following topics: demographics and background, parent-teacher involvement, school climate, pre-natal development, behavioral assessment of child, child's adaptation to school, depression, parent practices, family relations, stress, attitudes toward substance use, neighborhood characteristics, fear of crime, subtance use, alcohol use, relationship to romantic partner, service use, child's peer relations, and delinquency.

The third group of respondents, teachers, comprise datasets 21 through 27. Teachers were asked to provide responses about the child's behavior and ability to adapt to classroom environment. Also, they were asked about parental involvement with them and the school. No demographic information is available for teachers.

Each respondent group has a questionnaire for each wave. A very good complementary resource to go with the questionnaires is the user guide. The user guide provides a short section describing the consistency of each section / scale as a whole across the waves of data collection. This is done for all three groups of respondents. The user guide then provides detailed information for each item contained in each section / scale. Part of this detailed information includes a crosswalk for each section / scale

Response Rates:   

Response rates are given for each wave by children, primary caregivers, and teachers respectively.

SAFE Children I:

- Wave 1: (99.1 / 99.8 / 99.3)

- Wave 2: (90.3 / 91.0 / 98.1)

- Wave 3: ( X / X / 96.9)

- Wave 4: (91.0 / 91.5 / 94.3)

- Wave 5: (93.9 / 92.9 / 96.0)

SAFE Children II:

- Wave 6: (80.0 / 80.0 / 72.2)

- Wave 7: ( X / X / 68.4)

- Wave 8: (79.0 / 78.3 / 66.0)

- Wave 9: (77.6 / 78.1 / X )

SAFE Children III:

- Wave 10: (72.9 / 75.0 / X )

- Wave 11: (73.6 / 74.1 / X )

Presence of Common Scales:    The user guide provides a full list and quick breakdown of the instruments / scales used for all three respondent groups. This overview is bookmarked as "List of Instruments" within the larger section "Study Overview".

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Restrictions: Users are reminded that these data are to be used solely for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information and not for the investigation of specific individuals.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:   2016-03-31

Variables

Browse Matching Variables

DS9: Child - Wave 10

FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO LIMIT - THE PLACES OR THE TIMES THAT YOU WILL WORK
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will work?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO LIMIT - THE PLACES THAT YOU WILL GO BY YOURSELF
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places that you will go by yourself?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO PURCHASE A WEAPON FOR SELF-PROTECTION
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . purchase a weapon for self-protection?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO MOVE TO A DIFFERENT PLACE TO LIVE
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . move to a different place to live?
STRESS - VICTIM OF VIOLENT CRIME
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
STRESS - WITNESSED VIOLENT CRIME
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Have you ever witnessed any violent crime?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO LIMIT - PLACES / TIMES YOU WILL GO SHOPPING
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will go shopping?
STRESS - VICTIM OF NON-VIOLENT CRIME
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO INSTALL A HOME SECURITY SYSTEM OR PROTECTIVE DEVICE
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . install a home security system or protective device such as bars on the windows, buzzers on windows and/or doors, etc?
STRESS - WITNESSED VIOLENT CRIME- TIMES IN LAST YEAR
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Witnessed a violent crime How many times has it happened in the last year?

DS10: Child - Wave 11

FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO LIMIT - THE PLACES OR THE TIMES THAT YOU WILL WORK
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will work?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO LIMIT - THE PLACES THAT YOU WILL GO BY YOURSELF
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places that you will go by yourself?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO PURCHASE A WEAPON FOR SELF-PROTECTION
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . purchase a weapon for self-protection?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO MOVE TO A DIFFERENT PLACE TO LIVE
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . move to a different place to live?
STRESS - VICTIM OF VIOLENT CRIME
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
STRESS - WITNESSED VIOLENT CRIME
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Have you ever witnessed any violent crime?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO LIMIT - PLACES / TIMES YOU WILL GO SHOPPING
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will go shopping?
STRESS - VICTIM OF NON-VIOLENT CRIME
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
FEAR OF CRIME - CAUSED YOU TO INSTALL A HOME SECURITY SYSTEM OR PROTECTIVE DEVICE
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . install a home security system or protective device such as bars on the windows, buzzers on windows and/or doors, etc?
STRESS - WITNESSED VIOLENT CRIME- TIMES IN LAST YEAR
Now I want to ask you about some things that may have happened to you or people close to you. Witnessed a violent crime How many times has it happened since the last interview?

DS11: Primary Caregiver - Wave 1

Community - How much of a problem is crime
Violent crime: How much of a problem is it?
Stress - Ever witnessed violent crime
Have you ever witnessed any violent crime (not counting what you've already told me about)?
Stress - Ever been victim of violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
Stress - Ever been victim of non-violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
Stress - Victim violent crime...been victim last year
Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force during the last year?
Stress - Witness violent crime...last year
Have you ever witnessed any violent crime (not counting what you've already told me about), during the last year?
Stress - Victim non-violent crime...last year
Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else during the last year?

DS13: Primary Caregiver - Wave 4

Fear of Crime - Purchase a weapon for self-protection
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Purchase a weapon for self-protection
Fear of Crime - Move to a different place to live
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Move to a different place to live
Stress - Ever witnessed violent crime
Have you ever witnessed any violent crime (not counting what you've already told me about)?
Stress - Ever been victim of violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
Stress - Ever been victim of non-violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
Fear of Crime - Limit places or the times to go shopping
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Limit the places or the times that you go shopping

DS14: Primary Caregiver - Wave 5

Community - Crime gotten worse in my neighborhood recently (REVERSED)
Crime gotten worse in my neighborhood recently - (REVERSED)
Fear of Crime - Purchase a weapon for self-protection
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Purchase a weapon for self-protection
Fear of Crime - Move to a different place to live
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Move to a different place to live
Stress - Ever witnessed violent crime
Have you ever witnessed any violent crime (not counting what you've already told me about)?
Stress - Ever been victim of violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
Stress - Ever been victim of non-violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?

DS15: Primary Caregiver - Wave 6

Fear of Crime - Purchase a weapon for self-protection
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Purchase a weapon for self-protection
Fear of Crime - Move to a different place to live
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Move to a different place to live
Stress - Ever witnessed violent crime
Have you ever witnessed any violent crime (not counting what you've already told me about)?
Stress - Ever been victim of violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
Stress - Ever been victim of non-violent crime
Have you ever been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
Fear of Crime - Limit places or the times to go shopping
Has fear of crime caused you to...? Limit the places or the times that you go shopping

DS16: Primary Caregiver - Wave 8

DS17: Primary Caregiver - Wave 9

DS18: Primary Caregiver - Wave 10

Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to limit the places or the times that you will work
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will work?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to limit the places that you will go by yourself
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places that you will go by yourself?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to purchase a weapon for self-protection
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . purchase a weapon for self-protection?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to move to a different place to live
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . move to a different place to live?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to limit the places or the times that you will go shopping
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will go shopping?
Stress - Witness violent crime- times in last year
How many times in the last year? Did you witness any violent crime?
Stress - How many times since last interview- victim of violent crime
Thinking back since then? Have you been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to install a home security system/protective device
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . install a home security system or protective device such as bars on the windows, buzzers on windows and/or doors, etc.?
Stress - Victim of any non-violent crime- times in last year
How many times in the last year? Have you been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
Community - Violent crime is a problem in my neighborhood
Now I want to ask you about your neighborhood and community. Using the following choices, tell me how well you believe each statement describes your neighborhood and your feelings about it. Violent crime is a problem in my neighborhood.

DS19: Primary Caregiver - Wave 11

Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to limit the places or the times that you will work
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will work?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to limit the places that you will go by yourself
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places that you will go by yourself?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to purchase a weapon for self-protection
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . purchase a weapon for self-protection?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to move to a different place to live
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . move to a different place to live?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to limit the places or the times that you will go shopping
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . limit the places or the times that you will go shopping?
Stress - Witness violent crime- times in last year
How many times in the last year? Did you witness any violent crime?
Stress - How many times since last interview- victim of violent crime
Thinking back since then? Have you been the victim of any violent crime, involving force or threat of force?
Fear Of Crime - Has fear of crime caused you to install a home security system/protective device
Has fear of crime caused you to . . . install a home security system or protective device such as bars on the windows, buzzers on windows and/or doors, etc.?
Stress - Victim of any non-violent crime- times in last year
How many times in the last year? Have you been the victim of any non-violent crime, such as burglary, car theft, or something else?
Community - Violent crime is a problem in my neighborhood
Now I want to ask you about your neighborhood and community. Using the following choices, tell me how well you believe each statement describes your neighborhood and your feelings about it. Violent crime is a problem in my neighborhood.

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