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Comprehensive Investigation of the Role of Individuals, the Immediate Social Environment, and Neighborhoods in Trajectories of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior in Chicago, Illinois, 1994-2002 (ICPSR 33921) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The overall goal of this study was to acquire a greater understanding of the development of adolescent antisocial behavior using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Longitudinal cohort data from PHDCN were analyzed to assess patterns of substance use and delinquency across three waves for three age cohorts and 78 neighborhoods. This analysis of existing PHDCN data used multiple cohort and multilevel latent growth models as well as several ancillary approaches to answer questions pertinent to the development of adolescent antisocial behavior.

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Study Description

Citation

Sullivan, Christopher. Comprehensive Investigation of the Role of Individuals, the Immediate Social Environment, and Neighborhoods in Trajectories of Adolescent Antisocial Behavior in Chicago, Illinois, 1994-2002. ICPSR33921-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2012-12-19. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR33921.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2009-IJ-CX-0042)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   adolescents, delinquent behavior, drug use, neighborhood characteristics, neighborhoods, offenders, parental influence, peer influence, social environment, social influences, social support, substance abuse, violent crime

Geographic Coverage:   Chicago, Illinois, United States

Time Period:  

  • 1994--2002

Date of Collection:  

  • 1994--2002

Unit of Observation:   neighborhood, individual

Universe:   All individuals in Cohort 9, Cohort 12, and Cohort 15 of the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Longitudinal Cohort studies.

Data Types:   program source code

Data Collection Notes:

In order to use the SPSS system file provided in this collection, users must first obtain the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) data available from the ICPSR PHDCN Web site.

To protect respondent privacy, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods data are restricted from general dissemination. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete an Agreement for the Use of Confidential Data, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research. Apply for access to these data through the ICPSR Restricted Data Contract Portal, which can be accessed via the study home page. Researchers are encouraged to also consult the NACJD Restricted Data page for additional information about restricted data.

Methodology

Study Purpose:  

The overall goal of this study was to acquire a greater understanding of the development of adolescent antisocial behavior using data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN). Two objectives fell under this general goal:

  1. To describe trajectories of substance use and delinquency across the adolescent period.
  2. To assess important individual and social influences available in the PHDCN in terms of impact on the initial level and continuance of antisocial behavior.

Study Design:  

Existing Longitudinal Cohort data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) were analyzed to assess patterns of substance use and delinquency across three waves for three age cohorts and 78 neighborhoods. Specifically, the study utilized Cohort 9 and Cohort 12 data which were each comprised of 752 individuals and Cohort 15 data which was comprised of 626 individuals. Each of the cohorts was interviewed approximately two years apart. The study analyses were expanded to the neighborhood level through use of data from the PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766). Approximately 8,700 Chicago residents (25 to 50 per neighborhood) were surveyed regarding their perception of their neighborhood.

The PHDCN measures used in this study focused on two major aspects of adolescent antisocial behavior (substance use, delinquency) and a number of domains that have been utilized in explaining them. The self-reported substance use and delinquency outcome variables were measured across three waves for Cohorts 9, 12, and 15. Other items included in study analyses include measures of individual risk, family/parental influences, social support, antisocial peers, sociodemographics, and neighborhood influence.

This analysis of existing PHDCN data used multiple cohort and multilevel latent growth models as well as several ancillary approaches to answer questions pertinent to the development of adolescent antisocial behavior. The first question was: (1) How are trajectories of substance use and delinquency across adolescence best described? This involved (a) an assessment of sample-average initial levels (intercept) and trends (slope) and their variance estimates; (b) plotting observed and expected trends across ages 9 to 19; and (c) testing group (cohort) differences in latent growth factors (intercept, slope). The second question was (2) To what extent do key individual and social influence measures available in PHDCN (e.g., self control, family influence, peer influence) impact the initial level of substance use/delinquency? This entailed (a) testing the effects of individual, family, and peer covariates on the intercept; (b) assessing relevant interaction effects for individual and family/peers; and (c) examining cohort differences in covariate effects. Third, (3) To what extent do key individual and social influences impact the progression (slope) of substance use/delinquency over time? This shifted the emphasis to the enduring impact of these risk or protective factors. A "launch" perspective was used to frame the analysis around the second and third questions. Fourth, the analysis considered (4) Do youth trajectories of substance use and delinquency vary across neighborhoods? The process for answering this question entailed: (a) assessing neighborhood cluster-level variance components for the intercept and slope; (b) assessing neighborhood cluster-level variance components for covariate effects (i.e., neighborhood influences) where relevant and; (c) assessing neighborhood influences on covariate effects (i.e., cross-level interactions) when variation was identified at the previous stage.

Sample:  

Units of observation were selected based on a multi-stage design where a random sample of 343 neighborhood clusters was initially chosen. Eighty of these clusters were then selected based on a stratified sampling strategy that focused on socioeconomic and racial composition. The selection of participants for the longitudinal cohort study followed from that process. Cohort 9 and Cohort 12 were each comprised of 752 individuals and Cohort 15 was comprised of 626 individuals. Seventy-five percent of those in Cohort 9, 74 percent in Cohort 12, and 72 percent in Cohort 15 who were invited to participate in the longitudinal cohort study actually did so.

The analysis was expanded to the neighborhood level (N=78) through use of data from The PHDCN community survey. Approximately 8,700 Chicago residents (25 to 50 per neighborhood) were surveyed regarding their perception of their neighborhood.

Weight:   none

Data Source:

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): MASTER FILE, WAVE 1, 1994-1997 (ICPSR 13580)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): DEVIANCE OF PEERS, WAVE 1, 1994-1997 (ICPSR 13585)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): EMOTIONALITY, ACTIVITY, SOCIABILITY, AND IMPULSIVITY TEMPERAMENT SURVEY, WAVE 1, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 13586)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): HOME OBSERVATION FOR MEASUREMENT OF THE ENVIRONMENT, WAVE 1, 1994-1997 (ICPSR 13594)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): PROVISION OF SOCIAL RELATIONS (SUBJECT), WAVE 1, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 13598)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SELF REPORT OF OFFENDING, WAVE 1, 1994-1997 (ICPSR 13601)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SUBSTANCE USE, WAVE 1, 1994-1997 (ICPSR 13602)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SELF REPORT OF OFFENDING, WAVE 2, 1997-2000 (ICPSR 13658)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SUBSTANCE USE, WAVE 2, 1997-2000 (ICPSR 13659)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SELF REPORT OF OFFENDING, WAVE 3, 2000-2002 (ICPSR 13742)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS (PHDCN): SUBSTANCE USE, WAVE 3, 2000-2002 (ICPSR 13743)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766)

Description of Variables:   Outcome measures include self-reported substance use and delinquency. Self-reported delinquency was measured across three different dimensions: violent offenses, property offenses, and public order/status offenses. Community-level measures include collective efficacy, social disorder, and social capital. Sociodemographic variables include gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Family/parental influences variables include parental warmth, parental monitoring, and parental lack of hostility. The study also utilized a social support variable, a self control measure, and an antisocial peers variable.

Response Rates:   Users should consult the original PHDCN studies for response rate information.

Presence of Common Scales:  

The substance use measure comprises the number of self-reports of use for the previous year for alcohol, cocaine, marijuana, and other illicit drugs (e.g., psychedelics, heroin, amphetamines). Self-reported delinquency was measured across three different dimensions: violent offenses (e.g., carried a hidden weapon, arson, stole purse/pickpocket, attack with weapon, used weapon to get money/things), property offenses (damage property, broke into building, stole from home, stole from store, took from car, bought/sold stolen goods), and public order/status offenses (e.g., skipped school, cause trouble in public place, drove without license).

A series of measures that tap into the youth's family environment and parental management processes were included in the study analyses. The items are drawn from the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) Inventory. Parental warmth is measured using 9 items derived from interviewer's observations of parents during the in-home interviews of primary caregivers and children at wave 1. Parental lack of hostility consists of several observational items that researchers recorded during the in-home interviews with children/adolescents and primary caregivers. Parental monitoring and supervision is a 13-item scale where primary caregivers self reported on how they directly and indirectly monitor their children.

The social support measure was derived from the Provision of Social Relationships (PSR) instrument that asks questions about the degree to which the youth feels respected and has people (family, friends) whom they can count on if necessary. A self control measure was developed based on the EASI temperament instrument. The antisocial peer influence measure was drawn from a set of 15 items that ask about the degree to which a youth's "friends or people [they] spend time with" engage in delinquent activities and substance use.

Social cohesion and neighborhood social control were combined to create a measure of collective efficacy. The study also utilizes a social capital measure (e.g., "there are adults in this neighborhood kids can look up to", "parents in the neighborhood generally know each other") and a social disorder measure (e.g., "how much of a problem is drinking in public", "how much of a problem is groups of teenagers hanging out and causing trouble").

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