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Research on Pathways to Desistance [Maricopa County, AZ and Philadelphia County, PA]: Subject Measures, 2000-2010 (ICPSR 29961) RSS

Alternate Title:  Pathways to Desistance (Subjects)

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The Pathways to Desistance study was a multi-site study that followed 1,354 serious juvenile offenders from adolescence to young adulthood in two locales between the years 2000 and 2010. Enrolled into the study were adjudicated youths from the juvenile and adult court systems in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona (N=654) and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (N=700).

Respondents were enrolled and baseline interviews conducted from November 2000 to January 2003. Follow-up interviews were then scheduled with the respondents at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 60, 72 and 84 months past their baseline interview.

The enrolled youth were at least 14 years old and under 18 years old at the time of their committing offense and were found guilty of a serious offense (predominantly felonies, with a few exceptions for some misdemeanor property offenses, sexual assault, or weapons offenses).

The baseline interview was conducted within 75 days of the youth's adjudication hearing. For youths in the adult system, the baseline interview was conducted within 90 days of either (a) the decertification hearing in Philadelphia, a hearing at which it is determined if the case will remain in adult court or if it will be sent back to juvenile court; or (b) the adult arraignment hearing in Phoenix, the point in the Arizona adult system at which charges have been formally presented.

The aims of the investigation were to identify initial patterns of how serious adolescent offenders stop antisocial activity, to describe the role of social context and developmental changes in promoting these positive changes, and to compare the effects of sanctions and interventions in promoting these changes. The larger goals of the Pathways to Desistance study were to improve decision-making by court and social service personnel and to clarify policy debates about alternatives for serious adolescent offenders. The study relied primarily on self-report information from study participants.

Each wave of data collection covered six domains: (1) background characteristics (e.g., demographics, academic achievement, psychiatric diagnoses, offense history, neurological functioning, psychopathy, personality), (2) indicators of individual functioning (e.g., work and school status and performance, substance abuse, mental disorder, antisocial behavior), (3) psychosocial development and attitudes (e.g., impulse control, susceptibility to peer influence, perceptions of opportunity, perceptions of procedural justice, moral disengagement), (4) family context (e.g., household composition, quality of family relationships), (5) personal relationships (e.g., quality of romantic relationships and friendships, peer delinquency, contacts with caring adults), and (6) community context (e.g., neighborhood conditions, personal capital, and community involvement). Information about the measures used to capture this information can be found on the Pathways to Desistance website.

Series: Research on Pathways to Desistance Series

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

WARNING: Because this study has many datasets, the download all files option has been suppressed, and you will need to download one dataset at a time.

DS1:  Baseline - Download All Files (31.7 MB)
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DS2:  6 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (19.1 MB)
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DS3:  12 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (18.9 MB)
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DS4:  18 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (19.3 MB)
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DS5:  24 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (22.1 MB)
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DS6:  30 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (23.6 MB)
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DS7:  36 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (23.8 MB)
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DS8:  48 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (24.1 MB)
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DS9:  60 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (23.9 MB)
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DS10:  72 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (25.4 MB)
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DS11:  84 Month Follow-Up - Download All Files (24.4 MB)
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Study Description

Citation

Mulvey, Edward P. Research on Pathways to Desistance [Maricopa County, AZ and Philadelphia County, PA]: Subject Measures, 2000-2010. ICPSR29961-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-01-07. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR29961.v2

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Funding

This study was funded by:

  • William Penn Foundation
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2000-MU-MU-0007, 2005-JK-FX-K001, 2007-MU-FX-0002)
  • Arizona Governor's Justice Commission (JBISA01224400)
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency (2001-J05-011944, 2002-J04-13032, 2003-J04-14560, 2004-J04-15849, 2005-J04-17071, 2006-J04-18272)
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (043357)
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA019697 01 - 05)
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (1999-IJ-CX-0053, 2008-IJ-CX-0023)
  • William T. Grant Foundation (99-2009-099)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   academic achievement, community involvement, crime, demographic characteristics, family life, friendships, gangs, household composition, income, interpersonal relations, juvenile crime, juvenile offenders, neighborhood conditions, personal adjustment, psychological evaluation, psychosocial assessment, religion, social behavior, substance abuse

Geographic Coverage:   Arizona, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Phoenix, United States

Time Period:  

  • 2000--2010

Date of Collection:  

  • 2000-11--2003-01
  • 2001-05--2003-08
  • 2001-08--2004-03
  • 2002-05--2004-09
  • 2002-11--2005-02
  • 2003-05--2005-09
  • 2003-11--2006-04
  • 2004-12--2007-04
  • 2005-11--2008-03
  • 2006-11--2009-02
  • 2007-11--2010-03

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   Youths 14-19 years of age from the juvenile and adult court systems in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona, and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania from November 2000 to April 2003.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

More information about this study is available on the Pathways to Desistance Web site.

Other contributors to the Pathways to Desistance study:

  • Carol A. Schubert, University of Pittsburgh (Study Director)
  • Laurie Chassin, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Co-Investigator)
  • George P. Knight, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Co-Investigator)
  • Sandra Losoya, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Site Coordinator)
  • Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D., Temple University (Co-Investigator)
  • Robert Brame, Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Charlotte
  • Elizabeth Cauffman, Ph.D., University of California-Irvine (Co-Investigator)
  • Jeffrey Fagan, Ph.D., Columbia University
  • Alex Piquero, Ph.D., Florida State University

The baseline file's section for offense history, which was self-reported, has been masked for confidentiality reasons. However, the section does include two variables (age at first arrest and number of arrests) merged from the official records that were obtained as part of the larger Pathways project. The complete official records data will be released by ICPSR at a later date.

Other measures were taken to protect the confidentiality of the respondents. A list of the steps taken is included in the front of each PDF codebook.

Each datafile contains approximately 45 to 50 sections or groups of variables. These groups are listed in the PDF codebooks as bookmarks. In the front of each codebook is a crosswalk listing these groups to show which sections were repeated across time. Most of the variables in a group are the same in a subsequent wave's group. The variable names are the same with the exception of the first two characters which designate what wave the variable belongs to: S0 for the baseline file; S1 for the 6 month follow-up; S2 for the 12 month follow-up; and so forth.

Methodology

Sample:  

Six potential cities/counties were investigated for potential selection before Phoenix and Philadelphia were finalized. These two areas were selected due to containing (a) high enough rates of serious crime committed by juveniles; (b) a diverse racial/ethnic mix of potential participants; (c) a sizable enough number of female offenders; (d) a contrast in the way the systems operate; (e) political support for the study and cooperation from the practitioners in the juvenile and criminal justice systems; and (f) the presence of experienced research collaborators to oversee the data collection.

Youth were selected for potential enrollment after a review of court files in each locale revealed that they had been adjudicated (found guilty) of a serious offense. Eligible crimes included all felony offenses with the exception of less serious property crimes, as well as misdemeanor weapons offenses and misdemeanor sexual assault.

Drug offenses constitute a large proportion of all offenses committed by youth. And males comprise the vast majority of youth who are charged with drug offenses. Therefore the study instituted a capped proportion of males with drug offenses to 15 percent of the sample at each site.

All females who met the age and adjudicated crime requirements, or any youth whose case was being considered for trial in the adult court system, were eligible for enrollment regardless if the charged crime was a drug offense.

Weight:   none

Mode of Data Collection:   computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

Response Rates:  

During the enrollment period (November 2000 to January 2003) 10,461 individuals who met the age and petitioned charge criteria were processed in the court systems in Philadelphia and Phoenix. In 5,382 of the these cases (51 percent) the youth was found not guilty or had the charges reduced below a felony-level offense at adjudication. Another 1,272 cases were dropped (12 percent) from consideration because the court data were insufficient to determine the person's eligibility status at adjudication.

Of the remaining 3,807 eligible cases 1,799 (47 percent) were excluded from consideration due to potential case overload of the local interviewer or the 15 percent threshhold of drug offenders was close to being breached.

This resulted in 2,008 youths who were approached for inclusion into the study. Of those youths who were approached 1,354 consented and participated (67 percent).

Over the course of the 7-year follow-up period, there were 864 respondents (63.8 percent) were located and interviewed for 10 of 10 possible interviews. An additional 309 youths (22.8 percent) were located and interviewed for 8 or 9 out of 10 possible interviews. Conversely, there were 17 (1.3 percent) respondents who didn't participate in any additional surveys and another 22 (1.6 percent) who only were located and and interviewed for just 1 or 2 follow-up of the 10 possible follow-up interviews. These numbers do not adjust for 91 participants who either died (n=48) or refused continued participation (n=43) of the study over the course of the 7-year follow-up period.

Overall the study was able to achieve an average of 89.5 percent for each follow-up interview.

Presence of Common Scales:  

This study used over 50 different scales. More detailed information about the scales is available on the Constructs page of the Pathways to Desistance Web site.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2013-01-07 Added parts 2 through 11 which contain the data files for the 10 follow-up interviews that took place.

Related Publications

Variables

Browse Matching Variables

DS2: 6 Month Follow-Up

S1 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S1 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS3: 12 Month Follow-Up

S2 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S2 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS4: 18 Month Follow-Up

S3 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S3 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS5: 24 Month Follow-Up

S4 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S4 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS6: 30 Month Follow-Up

S5 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S5 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS7: 36 Month Follow-Up

S6 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S6 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS8: 48 Month Follow-Up

S7 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S7 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS9: 60 Month Follow-Up

S8 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S8 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS10: 72 Month Follow-Up

S9 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
S9 Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS11: 84 Month Follow-Up

SA POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; the mean of six items in the scale. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree Strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree Strongly Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 4 items; only available if subject lives with supervising adult MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental monitoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA POrient: Has subject terminated parental rights
Subject has terminated parental rights. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only of youth who report having a child. The scale is used to assess the participant's view of his/her role as a parent (e.g., "Fathers/Mothers my age should devote most of their time and energy to rearing their child/children") and the degree to which this role is pervasive in his/her life. The inventory is a 6-item scale that asks participants to rank from 1 to 4 (1=Agree Strongly to 4=Disagree Strongly) the degree that each statement corresponds to their view of parenthood, with higher scores indicating greater parental orientation. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items. MEASURE: Parental Monitoring The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, & Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). Preliminary questions establish the presence of a single individual (X) who is primarily responsible for the youth. The respondent's answers to several items about their current living situation, specifically whether they live with the identified caretaker, establishes the skip pattern followed in the parental mointoring items. The scale is composed of 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much does X know about how you spend your free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the person identified as their primary caretaker, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the primary caretaker, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Doesn't know at all (2) Knows a little bit (3) Knows a lot (4) Knows everything Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA Education: Community school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers; mean of 3 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA Education: Community school - School Orientation
School orientation; mean of 7 items in the scale for community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA Education: Community school - Satisfaction with School - Community School
Satisfaction - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA Education: Community school - High School Engagement - Community School
Engagement - Community school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA Education: Institutional school - Bonding to Teachers
Bonding to teachers - institutional school; mean of 3 items in the scale for institutional school MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
SA Education: Institutional school - School Orientation
School orientation - institutional school; mean of 7 items in the scale for institutional school. MEASURE: Education (Follow-ups): School Bonding Grades Activities and Orientation The school attachment items included are taken from the work of Cernkovich and Giordano (1992). The items are used to evaluate the adolescent's educational experience along two dimensions: Bonding to Teachers (e.g., "Most of my teachers treat me fairly.") and School Orientation (e.g., "Schoolwork is very important to me."). Respondents rate 13 statements, using a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Strongly Disagree" to "Strongly Agree," with higher scores indicating a greater degree of academic commitment. The items are first asked regarding the community school which the youth attends and, for youths housed in an institution for three or more months during the recall period, the items are repeated to attain the degree of academic commitment regarding the institutional school. (1) Strongly Disagree (2) Disagree (3) Neither Agree or Disagree (4) Agree (5) Strongly Agree Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

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