National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 1991-1994: [United States] (ICPSR 2258) RSS

Alternate Title:  DATOS, 1991-1994

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

Drug-Abuse Treatment Outcomes Study (DATOS) is a prospective study designed to determine the outcomes of adult drug abuse treatment delivered in typical, stable, community-based programs and to provide comprehensive information on continuing and new questions about the effectiveness of drug abuse treatment for adults currently available in a variety of publicly funded and private programs. The study examined the role of treatment outcomes and program type, client characteristics (including dependence, treatment history, and physical and mental health comorbidities), treatment received (e.g., length and intensity of services provided), therapeutic approaches, provision of aftercare, and research on the components of effective treatment, including factors that engage and retain clients in programs. Four types of programs were included: outpatient methadone (OPM), short-term inpatient (STI), long-term residential (LTR), and outpatient drug-free (ODF). Respondents were sampled from among adults admitted to drug abuse treatment programs in 11 representative U.S. cities during 1991-1993.

Clients entering treatment completed two comprehensive intake interviews (Intake 1 and Intake 2), approximately one week apart. This information is provided in Parts 1 and 2 of the data collection. These interviews were designed to obtain baseline data on drug use and other behaviors, as well as information on background and demographic characteristics, patterns of dependence, living situation and child custody status, education and training, income and expenditures, and HIV risk behaviors, along with assessments of dependence, mental health, physical health, and social functioning. Data on criminal justice status and criminal behavior are reported in Part 5, Illegal Activities Data, and are drawn from the Intake 1 interview. Data reflecting during-treatment progress, including service delivery and client satisfaction, were collected in the one-, three-, and six-month in-treatment interviews (Parts 3, 4, and 8). The 12-Month Post-Treatment Follow-Up Interview (Part 6) replicated many of the intake questions and focused on key behaviors in the year following treatment. Part 7 includes variables for time in treatment and interview availability indicators. The 12-Month Follow-Up Urine Result data (Part 9) provide the results from urine sample tests that were given to a sample of subjects at the time of the 12-Month Follow-Up Interview. Urine specimens were tested for eight categories of drugs (amphetamines, barbiturates, benzodiazepines, cannabinoids, cocaine metabolite, methaqualone, opiates, and phencyclidine). The drugs covered in the study were alcohol, tobacco, marijuana (hashish, THC), hallucinogens or psychedelics such as LSD, mescaline, and PCP, cocaine (including crack), heroin, narcotics or opiates such as morphine, codeine, Demerol, Dilaudid, and Talwin, downers or depressants such as sedatives, barbiturates, and tranquilizers, amphetamines or other stimulants such as speed or diet pills, and other drugs. Part 10 contains data for 1393 clients who were interviewed 5 years post treatment. This part contains many of the same types of questions asked during previous interviews.

Access Notes

Dataset(s)

WARNING: This study is over 150MB in size and may take several minutes to download on a typical internet connection.

DS0:  Study-Level Files
Analyze Online:
SDA
DS1:  Intake 1 Data - Download All Files (194.7 MB) large dataset
DS2:  Intake 2 Data - Download All Files (116.6 MB)
DS3:  1-Month Intreatment Data - Download All Files (153.4 MB) large dataset
DS4:  3-Month Intreatment Data - Download All Files (82.9 MB)
DS5:  Illegal Activities Data - Download All Files (7.1 MB)
DS6:  12-Month Follow-Up Data - Download All Files (51.6 MB)
DS7:  Time in Treatment and Interview Availability Indicators - Download All Files (2 MB)
DS8:  6-Month Intreatment Interview Data - Download All Files (36.7 MB)
DS9:  12-Month Follow-Up Urine Result Data - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
DS10:  5-Year Follow-Up Data - Download All Files (38.8 MB)

Study Description

Citation

United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Drug Abuse Treatment Outcome Study (DATOS), 1991-1994: [United States]. ICPSR02258-v5. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2010-02-16. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02258.v5

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (U01-DA10377-3, 271-89-8233, N01DA-9-8233)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   AIDS, criminal histories, demographic characteristics, drug abuse, drug treatment, HIV, mental health, physical condition, treatment outcome, treatment programs

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1991--1999

Date of Collection:  

  • 1991--1999

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   Clients admitted to selected drug treatment programs in 1991-1993.

Data Types:   clinical data, survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Users are advised that the data are most appropriately analyzed by modality.

The Intake 1 and Intake 2 data files contain several continuous variables that denote age at the time of a certain event. For some of these variables, dichotomous codes 1 and 95 were also used for "don't know but under 15" and "don't know but 15 or older," respectively. Code 1 was also used for actual responses of "1 year old." Because it is unlikely that these events occurred at age 1, the code 1 was changed to 94 ("1 or don't know but under 15") in order to make it clearer that this code denotes something other than age 1. Users are cautioned that this may have an effect on any analyses performed using these variables.

DATOS is an ongoing collaborative research effort of the National Development and Research Institutes at North Carolina (NDRI), Texas Christian University, the University of California at Los Angeles, and NIDA. For additional information, see the DATOS Web site.

Methodology

Sample:   A total of 96 treatment programs in 11 mid-size and large United States cities with well-established treatment systems participated in DATOS. Programs were purposively sampled to reflect typical clinical approaches across the four modalities: outpatient methadone, short-term inpatient, long-term residential, and outpatient drug-free. Geographic location, type of program, and representativeness of the program and its clients were considered in the three-level process of selecting cities, programs, and clients. Respondents were sampled from among those admitted to treatment in sampled facilities in 1991-1993. A total of 10,010 clients participated in the Intake 1 interview. Of those, 8,755 participated in the Intake 2 interview, 6,148 in the one-month intreatment interview, 3,180 in the three-month intreatment interview, and 2,966 in the 12-month follow-up. The sample for Intake 1 was 66 percent male, 47 percent African American, and 13 percent Hispanic, with a mean age of 33 years. However, these and other client characteristics varied across modalities, reflecting differing therapeutic and operational characteristics. For the 12-month follow-up sample, 4,229 of the eligible clients who completed the two-stage intake interviews were selected for follow-up using a stratified random design. Of these respondents, 74 percent (n = 3,147) were located, 70 percent (n = 2,966) were successfully interviewed, 1.5 percent (n = 64) were deceased, and 2.7 percent (n = 117) refused to participate. Gender, ethnicity, and average age were not significantly different between the intake and follow-up samples. A random 25 percent of the follow-up sample was selected for urine testing. Altogether, 770 of the respondents interviewed at follow-up were selected for urine testing. From this group, 621 urine samples were obtained. The remaining cases included refusals and situations in which it was impossible to obtain a urine sample. Altogether, 21 percent of the follow-up respondents had urine drug screening results.

Mode of Data Collection:   face-to-face interview

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2010-02-16 A new part (#10) was added to the data files. It is a 5 year post treatment follow-up.
  • 2007-11-28 The question text was updated to enhance the clarity of each question by adding in question stems and qualifying information. Also, minor typographical errors were corrected.
  • 2007-02-19 SAS transport (XPORT), SPSS portable, and Stata system files were added to Parts 1-4, 6, and 8. Some corrections were made to the codebooks.
  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
  • 2004-07-01 Three datasets were added to the study: Time in Treatment and Interview Availability Indicators (Part 7), 6-Month Intreatment Interview Data (Part 8), and 12-Month Follow-Up Urine Result Data (Part 9). Corresponding documentation was prepared for each.

Related Publications

Variables

Browse Matching Variables

DS1: Intake 1 Data

# OUTPATIENT VISITS FOR MENTAL HEALTH
Altogether in your lifetime, approximately how many outpatient visits have you had for treatment for nerves, emotions, or mental health?
# TIMES:COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH CENTER
How many times have you ever stayed overnight for treatment of emotions, nerves, or your mental health at a community mental health center?
# TIMES: COMM MENTAL HEALTH CENTER
How many times have you ever had outpatient treatment or counseling for a mental health or emotional problem other than those associated with drug or alcohol use at a community mental health center?
#DAYS OVERNIGHT FOR TX MENTAL HEALTH
Altogether in your lifetime, what is the total number of days you have stayed overnight for treatment primarily for emotions, nerves, or mental health?
RELATIVES W/MENTAL HEALTH PROBS
Have any of your relatives ever had any mental health or emotional problems? Just include those who are related to you by blood.
AGE 1ST ADM FOR MENTAL HEALTH PROB
How old were you the first time you were admitted or stayed overnight somewhere for treatment of a mental health problem?
LAST REC'D OUTPT TX MENTAL HEALTH
When was the last time you received outpatient treatment for nerves, emotions, or mental health?
MENTAL HEALTH PROBS DUE ALC/DRUG USE
In the 12 months before admission to this program, did you have any mental health or emotional problems because of your alcohol or drug use?
# TIMES:ANY OTHER PLACE
How many times have you ever stayed overnight for treatment of emotions, nerves, or your mental health at any other place for emotional or mental health problems?
TAKING MEDICATION FOR EMOTIONAL PROBS
Are you currently taking any medication prescribed by a doctor for a mental health or emotional problem?

DS2: Intake 2 Data

CONDITION/RECEIVED PENSION-RECODED
For what condition were you receiving this disability pension? First mention.
CONDITION/RECEIVED PENSION-RECODED
For what condition were you receiving this disability pension? Second mention.
CONDITION/RECEIVED PENSION-RECODED
For what condition were you receiving this disability pension? Third mention.

DS3: 1-Month Intreatment Data

IMPORTANCE OF MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT
How important to you now is treatment or counseling for emotional, nervous, or mental health problems? Would you say . . .
RECEIVE SERVICE/MENTAL HEALTH CENTER
Where have you received these services? Mental health center.
SERVICE:COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH PROG
Where have you received these services? Community mental health center outpatient program.
RECEIVED SERVICES/MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM
Next, I'd like to ask some questions about other scheduled individual or group services that you may have received since your admission. These services may be any counseling, treatment, or other help that you have received from a professional (such as a medical doctor, psychiatrist, or case manager). Do not include any services that we have already talked about or that you have received on an unscheduled basis. Since your admission, have you received any scheduled individual or group services for emotional or mental health problems other than the services that I have already asked about?
RECEIVE SERVICE/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
Where have you received these services? A community mental health center.
#NIGHTS STAYED/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
How many nights have you stayed at a community mental health center?
FACILITY STAYED/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
Where have you stayed since your admission for this kind of treatment? A community mental health center.
TOOK PRESC MED FOR MENTAL PROB
Since your admission, have you taken any prescribed medication on a regular basis for a mental health or emotional problem?
CURRENTLY TAKING MED FOR MENTAL PROB
Are you currently taking any medications prescribed by a doctor for a mental health or emotional problem?
HAD MENTAL PROB BECAUSE OF DRUG/ALC USE
Since your admission, have you had any mental health or emotional problems because of your drug or alcohol use?

DS4: 3-Month Intreatment Data

IMPORTANCE OF MENTAL HEALTH TX
How important to you now is treatment or counseling for emotional, nervous, or mental health problems?
SERVICE:COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH PROG
Where have you received these services? Community mental health center outpatient program.
REC'D SVCS/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
Where have you received these services? A community mental health center.
#NIGHTS STAYED/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
How many nights have you stayed at a community mental health center?
REC'D SVCS/MENTAL HEALTH CENTER
Where have you received these services? Mental health center.
FACILITY STAYED/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
Where have you stayed since your admission for this kind of treatment? A community mental health center.
REC'D SVCS/MENTAL HEALTH PROB
Next, I'd like to ask some questions about other scheduled individual or group services that you may have received during the past 3 months. These services may be any counseling, treatment, or other help that you have received from a professional (such as a medical doctor, psychiatrist, or case manager). Do not include any services that we have already talked about or that you have received on an unscheduled basis. During the past 3 months, have you received any scheduled individual or group services for emotional or mental health problems other than the services that I have already asked about?
TOOK PRESC MED FOR MENTAL PROB
In the past 3 months, have you taken any prescribed medication on a regular basis for a mental health or emotional problem?
CURRENTLY TAKING MED FOR MENTAL PROB
Are you currently taking any medications prescribed by a doctor for a mental health or emotional problem?
HAD MENTAL PROB BECAUSE OF DRUG/ALC USE
In the past 3 months, have you had any mental health or emotional problems because of your drug or alcohol use?

DS6: 12-Month Follow-Up Data

REFERRED TO MENTAL HEALTH CENTER
Which services were you referred to? Mental health center / private practioner.
REGULAR MEDICATIONS FOR MENTAL PROBS
In the 12 months before admission, did you take any prescribed medications on a regular basis for a mental health or emotional problem?
TAKEN MEDICATIONS FOR MENTAL PROBS
In the past 12 months, have you taken any prescribed medications on a regular basis for a mental health or emotional problem?
HAD MENTAL PROBS BECAUSE OF DRUG/ALCOHOL
In the past 12 months, have you had any mental health or emotional problems because of your drug or alcohol use?
MENTAL PROBS NOT RESULT OF DRUGS/ALCOHOL
In the past 12 months, have you had any emotional or mental health problems that were not the result of your using drugs or alcohol?
#TIMES REC'D GROUP SVCS/MENTAL HLTH PROB
During the past 12 months, how many times have you received any scheduled individual or group services for emotional or mental health problems?
REFERRED BY: PRIVATE THERAPIST
Was getting this help your own idea, or did a program, a friend, a relative, or someone else suggest it? Private therapist or mental health center.
RECEIVE TX FOR EMOTIONAL PROBS
While you were in treatment at (NAME OF PROGRAM), did you receive treatment, including counseling or other treatment, for any emotional or mental health problems other than problems associated with drugs or alcohol use?
REC'D SVCS FOR MENTAL PROBS PAST 12 MOS
During the past 12 months, have you received any scheduled individual or group services for emotional or mental health problems other than the services that I have already asked about?
OVERNIGHT STAY/MENTAL PROB/ASSOC W/ALC
During the past 12 months, have you stayed overnight anywhere for treatment of emotional or mental health problems other than for problems associated with drugs or alcohol use?

DS8: 6-Month Intreatment Interview Data

IMPORTANCE OF MENTAL HEALTH TREATMENT
How important to you now is treatment or counseling for emotional, nervous, or mental health problems?
RECEIVE SERVICE/MENTAL HEALTH CENTER
Where have you received these services? Mental health center.
SERVICE:COMMUNITY MENTAL HEALTH PROG
Where have you received these services? Community mental health center outpaitent program?
RECEIVED SERVICES/MENTAL HEALTH PROBLEM
Next, I'd like to ask some questions about other scheduled individual or group services that you may have received during the past 3 months. These services may be any counseling, treatment, or other help that you have received from a professional (such as a medical doctor, psychiatrist, or case manager). Do not include any services that we have already talked about or that you have received on an unscheduled basis. During the past 3 months, have you received any scheduled individual or group services for emotional or mental health problems other than the services that I have already asked about?
RECEIVE SERVICE/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
Where have you received these services? A community mental health center.
#NIGHTS STAYED/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
How many nights have you stayed at a community mental health center?
FACILITY STAYED/COMMU MENTAL HEALTH CTR
Where have you stayed since your admission for this kind of treatment? A community mental health center.
TOOK PRESC MED FOR MENTAL PROB
In the past 3 months, have you taken any prescribed medication on a regular basis for a mental health or emotional problem?
CURRENTLY TAKING MED FOR MENTAL PROB
Are you currently taking any medications prescribed by a doctor for a mental health or emotional problem?
HAD MENTAL PROB BECAUSE OF DRUG/ALC USE
In the past 3 months, have you had any mental health or emotional problems because of your drug or alcohol use?

DS10: 5-Year Follow-Up Data

In continuous outpatient mental health treatment
Have you been in outpatient mental health treatment continuously since that time? If Yes -> Go to R30
Number times received outpatient care for mental health
Since leaving (NAME OF PROGRAM) how many times have you received treatment or had visits as on OUTPATIENT for a MENTAL health problem from a clinic, mental health program, or a doctor? If 0 -> Go to R30
Number of times admitted to hospital for mental health problem
Since leaving the (NAME OF PROGRAM) how many times have you been admitted to a hospital for a MENTAL health problem? [IF 0, SKIP TO R19]
Number of weeks ago last hospitalized for mental health
How many weeks ago were you last admitted to a hospital for a mental health problem? [If less than 7 days enter 0]
Any other outpatient mental health treatment received
After that first outpatient treatment ended, did you get any other outpatient treatment for a mental health problem? If No -> Go to R30
Treated overnight for mental health not drug/alcohol problems
During the past 12 months, have you stayed overnight anywhere for treatment of emotional or mental health problems other than problems associated with drugs or alcohol use? If Yes -> Tally on tally sheet M If No -> Go to M11
Number of weeks in last outpatient mental health care
For how many weeks did you receive treatment?
Had emotional/mental health problems not resulting from drugs/alcohol
In the past 12 months, have you had any emotional or mental health problems that were not the result of your using drugs or alcohol? If No -> Go to F10
Had emotional/mental health problems because of drug/alcohol use
In the past 12 months, have you had any mental health or emotional problems because of your drug or alcohol use? If No -> Go to F12

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