National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

<< 
Result 7 of 20
 >>

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Perceptions of Drug Risk, Wave 2, 1997-2000 (ICPSR 13643) RSS

Alternate Title:  PHDCN PDR, 1997-2000

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One such measure was the Perceptions of Drug Risk instrument. This instrument obtained information about the perceived harm in using substances, the difficulty of obtaining substances, and the experience of being approached to buy drugs. It was administered to Cohorts 9, 12, 15, and 18.

Series: Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) Series

Access Notes

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
Documentation:
DS1:  Cohort 9
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.
DS2:  Cohort 12
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.
DS3:  Cohort 15
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.
DS4:  Cohort 18
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.

Study Description

Citation

Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Perceptions of Drug Risk, Wave 2, 1997-2000. ICPSR13643-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-04-24. doi:10.3886/ICPSR13643.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
  • United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
  • Turner Foundation
  • Harris Foundation
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   adolescents, alcohol, childhood, cocaine, crack cocaine, drug use, drugs, hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, marijuana, smoking, social behavior, steroids, tobacco use

Geographic Coverage:   Chicago, Illinois, United States

Time Period:  

  • 1997--2000

Date of Collection:  

  • 1997--2000

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   Children, adolescents, young adults, and their primary caregivers, living in the city of Chicago in 1994.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection. (2) At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.

Methodology

Study Purpose:  

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.

Longitudinal Cohort Study

One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences.

Perceptions of Drug Risk

The data in this collection are from Wave 2 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study, administered between 1997 and 2000. The data files contain information from the Perceptions of Drug Risk protocol. The Perceptions of Drug Risk instrument obtained information about the perceived harm in using substances, the difficulty of obtaining substances, and the experience of being approached to buy drugs.

Study Design:  

Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods

The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts, and geographic boundaries, and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people.

Longitudinal Cohort Study

For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed in the Wave 1 data collection and 5,338 were interviewed in the Wave 2 data collection.

Data collection for Wave 2 began in 1997 and ended in 2000. It included a letter sent to study participants notifying them that they would be contacted to schedule an interview. This letter explained the study, reimbursements, and offered a monthly drawing prize of $1,000 for those participants who kept their first scheduled appointment. A toll free number was also included in the letter, so participants could call and schedule their own interviews or ask questions.

For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. An abbreviated telephone interview was conducted for the primary caregivers in Cohorts 0-15 and Cohort 18 study participants in Wave 2 who lived outside the nine-county metropolitan area to which research assistants were able to travel for interviews. A total of 221 telephone interviews were conducted during Wave 2, representing 3.55 percent of the sample.

Proxy interviews were conducted with study participants who were emancipated minors (under 18 but married or living independently). The study participants answered questions from the primary caregiver's interview on the primary caregiver's behalf. In Wave 2, four primary caregivers and two study participants were interviewed in jail. Study participants in foster care could not be interviewed. The Department of Children and Family Services did not allow interviews of the foster parent or the child. Permission was granted for a brief period in Wave 1, therefore there are some children in the sample who could not be followed up in Waves 2 and 3. Some children were not in foster care in Wave 1 but were placed in foster care by Wave 2 or 3. They were also not followed up. Lastly, some participants were interviewed in Wave 3 but not in Wave 2, as they were in foster care during Wave 2.

Some participants in Wave 1 spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. In Wave 2, an abbreviated version of the primary caregiver's protocol was administered, and the research assistant arranged for someone in the household to translate on the spot. In Wave 2, the complete protocol was translated into Spanish, and a subset of the primary caregiver's interview was translated into Polish.

Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes, were also included.

Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use.

Perceptions of Drug Risk

The Perceptions of Drug Risk instrument obtained information about the perceived harm in using substances, the difficulty of obtaining substances, and the experience of being approached to buy drugs. It was administered to Cohorts 9, 12, 15, and 18.

Sample:   Stratified probability sample.

Weight:   none

Mode of Data Collection:   face-to-face interview, telephone interview

Description of Variables:   The data files contain information regarding the perceived harm in using substances, the difficulty of obtaining substances, and the experience of being approached to buy drugs. Subjects answered questions as to whether they thought a person would hurt themselves if they used various substances a certain number of times. For these questions, subjects used a 4-point scale (1 = definitely won't, 2 = probably won't, 3 = probably will, 4 = definitely will) and were asked questions regarding use of cigarettes, marijuana, inhalants, heroin, cocaine, crack, steroids, and alcohol. For example, subjects were asked to rate whether a person would hurt themselves if they smoked one or more packs of cigarettes a day, if they tried inhalants once or twice, or if they used heroin regularly. Subjects were also asked how easy it was for them to obtain substances such as cigarettes, alcohol, marijuana, LSD, PCP, cocaine or crack, or heroin. Lastly, subjects were asked if someone had tried to sell them drugs in the past month.

Response Rates:  

The overall response rate for Wave 2 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 85.94 percent or 5,338 participants. The response rates for subjects by cohort were:

  1. 0 percent for Cohort 0
  2. 87.5 percent for Cohort 3
  3. 88.0 percent for Cohort 6
  4. 85.6 percent for Cohort 9
  5. 86.2 percent for Cohort 12
  6. 82.7 percent for Cohort 15
  7. 80.2 percent for Cohort 18

The response rates for primary caregivers by cohort were:

  1. 83.3 percent for Cohort 0
  2. 88.3 percent for Cohort 3
  3. 88.3 percent for Cohort 6
  4. 86.6 percent for Cohort 9
  5. 87.2 percent for Cohort 12
  6. 85.9 percent for Cohort 15
  7. 0 percent for Cohort 18

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Related Publications

Utilities

Metadata Exports

If you're looking for collection-level metadata rather than an individual metadata record, please visit our Metadata Records page.

Download Statistics