National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009 (ICPSR 29621) RSS

Alternate Title:  NSDUH 2009

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) series (formerly titled National Household Survey on Drug Abuse) primarily measures the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. The surveys are designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information is provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 and older. Questions included age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage for the following drug classes: marijuana, cocaine (and crack), hallucinogens, heroin, inhalants, alcohol, tobacco, and nonmedical use of prescription drugs, including pain relievers, tranquilizers, stimulants, and sedatives. The survey covered substance abuse treatment history and perceived need for treatment, and included questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders that allow diagnostic criteria to be applied. The survey included questions concerning treatment for both substance abuse and mental health-related disorders. Respondents were also asked about personal and family income sources and amounts, health care access and coverage, illegal activities and arrest record, problems resulting from the use of drugs, and needle-sharing. Questions introduced in previous administrations were retained in the 2009 survey, including questions asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17. These "youth experiences" items covered a variety of topics, such as neighborhood environment, illegal activities, drug use by friends, social support, extracurricular activities, exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, and perceived adult attitudes toward drug use and activities such as school work. Several measures focused on prevention-related themes in this section. Also retained were questions on mental health and access to care, perceived risk of using drugs, perceived availability of drugs, driving and personal behavior, and cigar smoking. Questions on the tobacco brand used most often were introduced with the 1999 survey. For the 2008 survey, Adult mental health questions were added to measure symptoms of psychological distress in the worst period of distress that a person experienced in the past 30 days and suicidal ideation. In 2008, a split-sample design also was included to administer separate sets of questions (WHODAS vs. SDS) to assess impairment due to mental health problems. In the 2009 NSDUH, however, all of the adults in the sample received only the WHODAS questions. Background information includes gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, veteran status, and current household composition.

Series: National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) Series

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Dataset(s)

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Study Description

Citation

United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. National Survey on Drug Use and Health, 2009. ICPSR29621-v5. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-06-24. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR29621.v5

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies (283-2004-00022)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   addiction, alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol consumption, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, controlled drugs, crack cocaine, demographic characteristics, depression (psychology), drinking behavior, drug abuse, drug dependence, drug treatment, drug use, drugs, employment, hallucinogens, health care, heroin, households, income, inhalants, marijuana, mental health, mental health services, methamphetamine, pregnancy, prescription drugs, sedatives, smoking, stimulants, substance abuse, substance abuse treatment, tobacco use, tranquilizers, youths

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 2009

Date of Collection:  

  • 2009

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Data were collected and prepared for release by Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina.

Since 1999, the survey sample has employed a 50-State design with an independent, multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 States and the District of Columbia.

Prior to the 2002 survey, this series was titled National Household Surveys on Drug Abuse.

Although the design of the 2009 survey is similar to the design of the 1999 through 2001 surveys, there are important methodological differences since 2002 that affect the 2009 estimates. Each NSDUH respondent since 2002 has been given an incentive payment of $30. This change resulted in an improvement in the survey response rate. In addition, in 2002 new population data from the 2000 decennial Census became available for use in NSDUH sample weighting procedures. Therefore the data from 2002 and later should not be compared with data collected in 2001 or earlier to assess changes over time.

For selected variables, statistical imputation was performed following logical inference to replace missing responses. These variables are identified in the codebook as "...LOGICALLY ASSIGNED" for the logical procedure, or by the designation "IMPUTATION-REVISED" in the variable label when the statistical procedure was also performed. The names of statistically imputed variables begin with the letters "IR". For each imputation-revised variable, a corresponding imputation indicator variable indicates whether a case's value on the variable resulted from an interview response or was imputed. Missing values for some demographic variables were imputed by the unweighted hot-deck technique used in previous surveys. Beginning in 1999, imputation of missing values for most variables was accomplished using predictive mean neighborhoods (PMN), a new procedure developed specifically for this survey. Both the hot-deck and PMN imputation procedure are described in the codebook.

To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed in the public use file. To further ensure respondent confidentiality, the data producer used data substitution and deletion of state identifiers and a subsample of records in the creation of the public use file.

Previously published estimates may not be exactly reproducible from the variables in the public use file due to the disclosure protection procedures that were implemented.

The setup and dictionary files for Stata are designed to be compatible with StataSE, Version 8. This is a large data file requiring that approximately 400 megabytes of Random Access Memory be allocated to Stata. Operations within Stata, including conversion of the ASCII data to Stata format, are likely to be slow. Analysts may wish to download subsets of data from the SAMHDA Survey Documentation and Analysis (SDA) system for use with Stata.

In the income section, which was interviewer-administered, a split-sample study had been embedded within the 2006 and 2007 surveys to compare a shorter version of the income questions with a longer set of questions that had been used in previous surveys. This shorter version was adopted for the 2008 NSDUH and will be used for future NSDUHs.

Methodology

Sample:   A multistage area probability sample for each of the 50 states and the District of Columbia has been used since 1999. The 2005 NSDUH was the first survey in a coordinated five-year sample design. Although there is no overlap with the 1999-2004 samples, the coordinated design for 2005 through 2009 facilitated a 50 percent overlap in second-stage units (area segments [see below]) between each two successive years from 2005 through 2009. This design was intended to increase precision of estimates in year-to-year trend analyses because of the expected positive correlation resulting from the overlapping sample between successive survey years. The 2009 design allows for computation of estimates by state in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia. States may therefore be viewed as the first level of stratification as well as a reporting variable. Eight states, referred to as the large sample states, had a sample designed to yield 3,600 respondents per state for the 2009 survey. This sample size was considered adequate to support direct state estimates. The remaining 43 states (which include the District of Columbia) had a sample designed to yield 900 respondents per state in the 2009 survey. In these 43 states, adequate data were available to support reliable state estimates based on SAE methodology. Within each state, sampling strata called state sampling (SS) regions were formed. Based on a composite size measure, states were partitioned geographically into roughly equal-sized regions. In other words, regions were formed such that each area yielded, in expectation, roughly the same number of interviews during each data collection period. The eight large sample states were divided into 48 SS regions each. The remaining states were divided into 12 SS regions each. Therefore, the partitioning of the United States resulted in the formation of a total of 900 SS regions. Unlike the 1999 through 2004 surveys, the first stage of selection for the 2005 through 2009 NSDUHs was Census tracts. The first stage of selection began with the construction of an area sample frame that contained one record for each Census tract in the United States. If necessary, Census tracts were aggregated within SS regions until each tract had, at a minimum, 150 dwelling units in urban areas and 100 dwelling units in rural areas. These Census tracts served as the primary sampling units (PSUs) for the coordinated five-year sample. One area segment (one or more Census blocks) was selected within each sampled Census tract. In advance of the survey period, specially trained listers had visited each area segment and listed all addresses for housing units and eligible group quarters units in a prescribed order. Systematic sampling was used to select the allocated sample of addresses from each segment. Beginning in 2002, each respondent who completed a full interview was given a $30 cash payment as a token of appreciation for his or her time. To improve the precision of the estimates, the sample allocation process targeted five age groups: 12 to 17 years, 18 to 25 years, 26 to 34 years, 35 to 49 years, and 50 years or older. The size measures used in selecting the area segments were coordinated with the dwelling unit and person selection process so that a nearly self-weighting sample could be achieved in each of the five age groups. The achieved sample size for the 2009 survey was 68,007 persons. The public use file contains 55,772 records due to a subsampling step used in the disclosure protection procedures. A key step in the data processing procedures established the minimum item response requirements in order for cases to be retained for weighting and further analysis (i.e., "usable" cases). These requirements, as well as full sampling methodology, are detailed in the codebook.

Weight:  

Due to unequal selection probabilities at multiple stages of sample selection and various adjustments, such as those for nonresponse and post-stratification, the 2009 NSDUH sample design is not self-weighting. Analysts are advised to use the final sample weight when attempting to use the 2009 NSDUH data to draw inferences about the target population or any subdomains of the target population. All estimates published in SAMHSA reports (such as the results from the 2009 NSDUH) are weighted using the final analysis weight for the full sample (ANALWT). For the public use file, the corresponding final sample weight is denoted as ANALWT_C, with the "C" denoting confidentiality protection. This sample weight represents the total number of target population persons each record on the file represents. Note that the sum of ANALWT_C, over all records on the data file, represents an estimate of the total number of people in the target population.

In the 2008 NSDUH's mental health module, the adult sample was split into a sample A who received the WHODAS questions LIREMEM through LIAD68 and a sample B who received the SDS questions MHAD66a through MHAD68. In the 2009 NSDUH, however, all of the adults in the sample received the WHODAS questions. Therefore, there is no need to have a separate adult mental health weight in the 2009 NSDUH because the person-level analysis weight can be used to produce the adult mental health estimates.

Mode of Data Collection:   audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI), computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), computer-assisted self interview (CASI)

Response Rates:   Strategies for ensuring high rates of participation resulted in a weighted screening response rate of 88.4 percent and a weighted interview response rate for the CAI of 75.6 percent. (Note that these response rates reflect the original sample, not the subsampled data file referenced in this document.)

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2014-06-24

    Since the release of the previous version of the 2009 Public Use Data File and Codebook a number of variables have been added. Some of the additional variables are revised versions of previous variables and replace the ones removed from the data file.

    A model to predict adult mental illness was revised in the 2012 NSDUH to produce more accurate estimates. The mental illness variables included in the 2009 NSDUH data files are based on the revised 2012 model.

    One new geographic variable(PDEN00), has been added to the data file to replace the previous PDEN variable. In this case, the only difference is the variable name. The variable has been renamed to indicate which census data was used in its construction.

  • 2013-06-20 Recoded system missing data to a value of -9 to public use data files.
  • 2012-11-16 The 2009 NSDUH public-use data file has been updated to include 23 new variables related to drug usage and dependence. Please view Table 4 of the codebook for more information on these variables.
  • 2012-02-10 Recoded system missing data to a value of -9.

Related Publications

Variables

Browse Matching Variables

YTH PARTICIPATED IN YOUTH ACTIVITIES
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. The following variable, YTHACT2, was created by counting the number of positive responses reported over the following 4 youth activity questions: School-based (YESCHACT), community-based (YECOMACT), church or faith-based (YEFAIACT), or other activities (YEOTHACT). Youth respondents who reported participation in 2 or more activities were included in the "2 or More Activities" category regardless of how many other activity questions were answered. Youth respondents who did not answer 2 or more of the 4 youth activity questions with a "yes" or "no" response were coded as SAS missing. To be included in the "None or 1 Activity" category, a youth respondent must have answered 2 or more of the activity questions and reported they participated in either zero or one activity.
YOUTH CARRIED A HANDGUN
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section.
YOUTH SOLD ILLEGAL DRUGS
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section.
YOUTH: MDE WITH SEVERE ROLE IMPAIRMENT
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: The following 22 variables are among all adolescent respondents who were asked the respective questions and are not confined to those respondents who were ultimately classified as having a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in their lifetime or past year. To produce estimates among adolescents with MDE, the analysis will need to be restricted by either the lifetime MDE variable (YMDELT) or the past year MDE variable (YMDEYR). The following variable, MDEIMPY, is derived from the maximum severity level of MDE role impairment (YSDSOVRL) and is restricted to adolescents with past year MDE (YMDEYR).
YOUTH: MDE ROLE IMPAIRMENT - CHORES AT HOME
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: The following 22 variables are among all adolescent respondents who were asked the respective questions and are not confined to those respondents who were ultimately classified as having a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in their lifetime or past year. To produce estimates among adolescents with MDE, the analysis will need to be restricted by either the lifetime MDE variable (YMDELT) or the past year MDE variable (YMDEYR). NOTE: The following five variables were not renamed in 2008 since they were originally only defined for youth; therefore, no changes are needed for these in order to generate analyses across years. NOTE: The following four variables make up the four role domains (chores at home, school or work, close relationships with family, and social life) of the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), which measures the impact of a disorder on an adolescent's life.
YOUTH: MDE ROLE IMPAIRMENT - SCHOOL OR WORK
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: The following 22 variables are among all adolescent respondents who were asked the respective questions and are not confined to those respondents who were ultimately classified as having a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in their lifetime or past year. To produce estimates among adolescents with MDE, the analysis will need to be restricted by either the lifetime MDE variable (YMDELT) or the past year MDE variable (YMDEYR). NOTE: The following five variables were not renamed in 2008 since they were originally only defined for youth; therefore, no changes are needed for these in order to generate analyses across years. NOTE: The following four variables make up the four role domains (chores at home, school or work, close relationships with family, and social life) of the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), which measures the impact of a disorder on an adolescent's life.
YOUTH: MDE ROLE IMPAIRMENT - FAMILY RELATIONSHIPS
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: The following 22 variables are among all adolescent respondents who were asked the respective questions and are not confined to those respondents who were ultimately classified as having a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in their lifetime or past year. To produce estimates among adolescents with MDE, the analysis will need to be restricted by either the lifetime MDE variable (YMDELT) or the past year MDE variable (YMDEYR). NOTE: The following five variables were not renamed in 2008 since they were originally only defined for youth; therefore, no changes are needed for these in order to generate analyses across years. NOTE: The following four variables make up the four role domains (chores at home, school or work, close relationships with family, and social life) of the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), which measures the impact of a disorder on an adolescent's life.
YOUTH: MDE ROLE IMPAIRMENT - SOCIAL LIFE
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: The following 22 variables are among all adolescent respondents who were asked the respective questions and are not confined to those respondents who were ultimately classified as having a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in their lifetime or past year. To produce estimates among adolescents with MDE, the analysis will need to be restricted by either the lifetime MDE variable (YMDELT) or the past year MDE variable (YMDEYR). NOTE: The following five variables were not renamed in 2008 since they were originally only defined for youth; therefore, no changes are needed for these in order to generate analyses across years. NOTE: The following four variables make up the four role domains (chores at home, school or work, close relationships with family, and social life) of the Sheehan Disability Scale (SDS), which measures the impact of a disorder on an adolescent's life.
YOUTH: MAX SEVERITY LEVEL OF MDE ROLE IMPAIRMENT
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: The following 22 variables are among all adolescent respondents who were asked the respective questions and are not confined to those respondents who were ultimately classified as having a Major Depressive Episode (MDE) in their lifetime or past year. To produce estimates among adolescents with MDE, the analysis will need to be restricted by either the lifetime MDE variable (YMDELT) or the past year MDE variable (YMDEYR). The following variable, YSDSOVRL, is assigned the maximum level of interference over the four role domains of SDS: chores at home (YSDSHOME), school or work (YSDSWRK), family relationships (YSDSREL), and social life (YSDSSOC). NOTE: The following five variables were not renamed in 2008 since they were originally only defined for youth; therefore, no changes are needed for these in order to generate analyses across years.
YOUTH: LIFETIME MAJOR DEPRESSIVE EPISODE (MDE)
NOTE: The variables in this section are recoded variables that were created from one or more of the edited variables from the preceding section. NOTE: Since 2005, all adult respondents aged 18 or older and adolescent (youth) respondents aged 12 to 17 have been administered separate age-appropriate depression modules designed to measure whether or not respondents had experienced a major depressive episode (MDE) in their lifetime and past year. Relevant data from both adults and adolescents were used to create recoded past year and lifetime MDE variables. Even though these MDE recodes used the relevant sections of the questionnaire for adults and adolescents, single variables were created for the entire population prior to 2008. For example, the lifetime MDE variable in the datasets prior to 2008 contained both the adolescent lifetime MDE recode created using data from the adolescent section and the adult lifetime MDE recode created using data from the adult section. In 2008, instead of a single set of variables containing the recoded MDE data for both adult and youth respondents, two recoded sets of MDE variables were created for adolescents and adults separately. This change was due to context effects stemming from changes in the mental health module which precedes the adult depression section within the questionnaire. Based on an analysis to determine the potential presence of context effects, it was determined that the adult depression data are not considered comparable to prior years and therefore all adult depression recode variables starting in 2008 had to be renamed to indicate the lack of comparability with prior years. See the 2008 Recoded Mental Health Module Variable Documentation Appendix for more information. In 2009, changes were made to the youth mental health service utilization (YMHSU) questions that preceded the adolescent depression questions. These changes included the replacement of five questions that asked about receipt of special education services and school counseling, and time spent in jail or foster care with questions that asked about receipt of mental health services in the education and justice system sectors. Due to this change, a context effect analysis was done using data from the first 6 months of the 2009 NSDUH and sought to determine whether changes in the YMHSU module affected responses to the first three adolescent depression questions and the lifetime and past year MDE estimates. The results of the analysis showed these changes in 2009 did not appear to affect the estimates of adolescent MDE. The youth depression data and associated MDE estimates were not impacted by either of the 2008 adult changes or the 2009 YMHSU module changes and are considered comparable to prior years. However, despite remaining comparable to prior years, the variables that shared the same variable names for both youth and adult depression data were assigned new names in 2008 since the adult data were no longer comparable with prior data. These renamed youth variables can be used in comparisons or analyses with data prior to 2008 by renaming the recoded adolescent depression variables the same across all the years. Youth depression variables that did not require renaming are noted specifically in the comments above the variables below. Specific details about these recoded variables and further information about context effects on the MDE estimates are provided in the Recoded Depression Variable Documentation Appendix. The following variable, YMDELT, classifies an adolescent as having a major depressive episode (MDE) in their lifetime (YMDELT=1) if they reported experiencing at least 5 out of the 9 criteria used to define an adolescent as having had MDE in their lifetime, where at least one of the criteria is a depressed mood or loss of interest or pleasure in daily activities (YODSMMDE=1). An adolescent was classified as NOT having a major depressive episode (MDE) in their lifetime (YMDELT=2) if they met either of these conditions: (1) Reported experiencing fewer than 5 out of the 9 criteria used to define an adolescent as having had MDE in their lifetime (YODSMMDE=2). (2) If the number of criteria used to define an adolescent as having had MDE in their lifetime is unknown (YODSMMDE=98) and the respondent reported at least one of the following: (I) Never having had a period of time lasting several days or longer when felt sad, empty, or depressed (YODPREV=2), discouraged or hopeless about how things were going in life (YODSCEV=2), or lost interest and became bored with most things usually enjoyable (YOLOSEV=2). (II) Experienced the feelings in (I), but they did not last most of the day, almost every day for two weeks or longer [YOLSI2WK=2 or YODPR2WK=2]. (III) Experienced the feelings in (I) most of the day, almost every day for two weeks or longer, but the feelings lasted less than an hour when mood was most severe and frequent (YOWRHRS=1). (IV) Experienced the feelings in (I) most of the day, almost every day for two weeks or longer for at least an hour during those times when mood was most severe and frequent, but the bad feelings were mild (YOWRDST=1), there was never a time when you felt so bad that nothing could cheer you up (YOWRCHR=4), and there was never a time when you felt so bad that you could not carry out your daily activities (YOWRIMP=4). (V) Experienced the feelings in (I) most of the day, almost every day for two weeks or longer for at least an hour with bad feelings that were more than mild or at some point could not be cheered up or could not carry out daily activities, but never had any other problems during those weeks, such as changes in sleep, eating, energy, the ability to keep mind on things, or feeling badly about self (YODPPROB=2).

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