General Social Survey Series

The General Social Surveys (GSS) have been conducted by the National Opinion Research Center annually since 1972, except for the years 1979, 1981, and 1992 (a supplement was added in 1992), and biennially beginning in 1994. For each round of surveys, the Roper Center for Public Opinion Research prepares a cumulative dataset that merges previous years of the GSS into a single file, with each year or survey constituting a subfile. The content of each survey changes slightly as some items are added to or deleted from the interview schedule. Main areas covered in the GSS include socioeconomic status, social mobility, social control, the family, race relations, sex relations, civil liberties, and morality. Topical modules designed to investigate new issues or to expand the coverage of an existing subject have been part of the GSS since 1977, when the first module on race, abortion, and feminism appeared. The topical modules for 1998 focused on the themes of medical care, medical ethics, religion, religion and health, culture, job experiences, and interracial friendships. Other topics covered have included gender, emotions, market exchange, giving and volunteering, and mental health (1996), family mobility and multiculturalism (1994), cultural issues (1993), work organizations (1991), intergroup relations (1990), occupational prestige (1989), religious socialization, behaviors, and beliefs (1988), sociopolitical participation (1987), the feminization of poverty (1986), social networks (1985), and the role of the military (1982 and 1984). The GSS also added a crossnational component in 1985, through participation in a multinational collaborative group called the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). Topics addressed have included the role of government (1985, 1990, 1996, and 1998), social support (1986), social inequality (1987), family and gender issues (1988 and 1994), work orientation (1989 and 1998), the impact of religious background, behavior, and beliefs on social and political preferences (1991 and 1998), environmental issues (1993), and national identity (1996 and 1998). In 1994, two major innovations were introduced to the GSS. First, the traditional core set of questions was substantially reduced to allow for the creation of mini-modules (small- to medium-sized supplements). The mini-modules permit greater flexibility to incorporate innovations and to include important items proposed by the social science community. Second, a new biennial, split-sample design was instituted, consisting of two parallel subsamples of approximately 1,500 cases each. The two subsamples contain identical cores and different topical ISSP modules.

Related Resources

Most Recent Studies

Related Publications

Most Recent Publications

2016
England, Paula . Sometimes the social becomes personal: Gender, class, and sexualities. American Sociological Review. 81, (1), 4-28.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2016
Stavrova, Olga,  Luhmann, Maike . Are conservatives happier than liberals? Not always and not everywhere. Journal of Research in Personality.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Association of Religion Data Archives . Attitudes vs. Behaviors: Religion and Helping Others. Association of Religion Data Archives.
Full Text Options: Original Source
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Association of Religion Data Archives . Crime and Religion. Association of Religion Data Archives.
Full Text Options: Original Source
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Association of Religion Data Archives . Religion and Science. Association of Religion Data Archives.
Full Text Options: Original Source
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Dawson, Samantha J.,  Bannerman, Brittany A.,  Lalumiere, Martin L. Paraphilic interests: An examination of sex differences in a nonclinical sample. Sexual Abuse.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Haynes, Erin N.,  Sucharew, Heidi,  Pierce, Kuhnell,  Alden, Jody,  Barnas, Mary,  Wright, Robert O.,  Parsons, Patrick J.,  Aldous, Kenneth M.,  Praamsma, Meredith L.,  Beidler, Caroline,  Dietrich, Kim N. Manganese exposure and neurocognitive outcomes in rural school-age children: The Communities Actively Researching Exposure Study (Ohio, USA). Environmental Health Perspectives. 123, (10), 1066
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Kornhauser, Ryan . Economic individualism and punitive attitudes: A cross-national analysis. Punishment and Society. 17, (1), 27-53.
Full Text Options: DOI Worldcat Google Scholar
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Kunihama, Tsuyoshi . Nonparametric Bayes Analysis of Social Science Data. Dissertation, Duke University.
Export Options: RIS/EndNote
2015
Miller-Perrin, Cindy,  Mancuso, Elizabeth Krumrei . Religion, Spirituality, and Positive Psychology: History and Definitions. Faith from a Positive Psychology Perspective. New York, NY: Springer Netherlands.
Export Options: RIS/EndNote

Variables