National Addiction & HIV Data Archive Program

Research on Pathways to Desistance [Maricopa County, AZ and Philadelphia County, PA]: Collateral Measures, 2000-2004 (ICPSR 32881)

Alternate Title:  Pathways (Collateral)

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The Pathways to Desistance study was a multi-site study that followed 1,354 serious juvenile offenders from adolescence to young adulthood in two locales. Enrolled into the study were adjudicated youths from the juvenile and adult court systems in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona (N=654) and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania (N=700) from 2000 through 2010.

This study looks at interviews conducted with the collateral informants who participated in the study. The collateral informants were nominated by the main study participant and represented individuals who "knew the study participant well". At the interview baseline the collateral informant was usually a biological parent. During the three follow-up interviews the majority of collaterals were a friend. Collateral informants could also be a sibling, significant other, or relative. Collaterals were asked questions in regards to the main study participant's life, allowing for comparison between responses provided by two sources. A baseline interview was conducted with the collateral after the baseline interview took place with the main participant. Additional waves of follow-up with collaterals took place at 12, 24, and 36 months. A collateral report is not present for all of the main study participant interviews across waves (see response rate below).

Series: Research on Pathways to Desistance Series

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

DS1:  Baseline - Download All Files (20.4 MB)
Documentation:
Analyze Online:
SDA
DS2:  12-Month Follow-up - Download All Files (10.7 MB)
Documentation:
Analyze Online:
SDA
DS3:  24-Month Follow-up - Download All Files (10.7 MB)
Documentation:
Analyze Online:
SDA
DS4:  36-Month Follow-up - Download All Files (10.5 MB)
Documentation:
Analyze Online:
SDA

Study Description

Citation

Mulvey, Edward P. Research on Pathways to Desistance [Maricopa County, AZ and Philadelphia County, PA]: Collateral Measures, 2000-2004. ICPSR32881-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-01-07. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR32881.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Funding

This study was funded by:

  • Arizona Governor's Justice Commission (JBISA01224400)
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (1999-IJ-CX-0053, 2008-IJ-CX-0023)
  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (2000-MU-MU-0007, 2005-JK-FX-K001, 2007-MU-FX-0002)
  • William Penn Foundation
  • William T. Grant Foundation (99-2009-099)
  • John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
  • Pennsylvania Commission on Crime and Delinquency (2001-J05-011944, 2002-J04-13032, 2003-J04-14560, 2004-J04-15849, 2005-J04-17071, 2006-J04-18272)
  • Robert Wood Johnson Foundation (043357)
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
  • United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Drug Abuse (R01 DA019697 01 - 05)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   academic achievement, community involvement, crime, demographic characteristics, family life, friendships, gangs, household composition, income, interpersonal relations, juvenile crime, juvenile offenders, neighborhood conditions, personal adjustment, psychological evaluation, psychosocial assessment, religion, social behavior, substance abuse

Geographic Coverage:   Arizona, Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Phoenix, United States

Time Period:  

  • 2000--2003
  • 2001--2006

Date of Collection:  

  • 2000-11--2006-04

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   Main study participants are youths 14-19 years of age from the juvenile and adult court systems in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona, and Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania from November 2000 to April 2003. Collateral informants are individuals nominated by the main study participant.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

More information about this study is available on the Pathways to Desistance Web site.

Other contributors to the Pathways to Desistance study:

  • Carol A. Schubert, University of Pittsburgh (Study Director)
  • Laurie Chassin, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Co-Investigator)
  • George P. Knight, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Co-Investigator)
  • Sandra Losoya, Ph.D., Arizona State University (Site Coordinator)
  • Laurence Steinberg, Ph.D., Temple University (Co-Investigator)
  • Robert Brame, Ph.D., University of North Carolina-Charlotte
  • Elizabeth Cauffman, Ph.D., University of California-Irvine (Co-Investigator)
  • Jeffrey Fagan, Ph.D., Columbia University
  • Alex Piquero, Ph.D., Florida State University

Collateral informants were individuals who knew the main study participant well. These individuals varied in their relationship to the main study participant. The largest groups of collaterals were parents, siblings, significant others, and friends/roommates. With the exception of the baseline data the breakdown of the various groups was similar across the three follow-up waves.

  • Parents: 73 percent / 13 percent / 16 percent/ 18 percent
  • Siblings: 4 percent / 18 percent / 16 percent / 14 percent
  • Significant Others: 0 percent / 11 percent / 14 percent / 18 percent
  • Friends/Roommates: 1 percent / 32 percent / 24 percent / 21 percent

Methodology

Study Purpose:  

The aims of the Pathways study were to identify initial patterns of how serious adolescent offenders stop antisocial activity, to describe the role of social context and developmental changes in promoting these positive changes, and to compare the effects of sanctions and interventions in promoting these changes. The larger goals of the Pathways to Desistance study were to improve decision-making by court and social service personnel and to clarify policy debates about alternatives for serious adolescent offenders. The study relied primarily on self-report information from study participants. Additionally this part of the Pathways study was designed to obtain a secondary report of information regarding the main study participant from individuals who "know him/her well".

Study Design:  

Main study participants were enrolled into the study between November 2000 through January 2003 following an adjudication in the juvenile or adult court systems in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona (N=654) and Philadephia County, Pennsylvania (N=700).

For the main study participant, a baseline interview was conducted within 75 days of the youth's adjudication hearing. For youths in the adult system, the baseline interview was conducted within 90 days of either (a) the decertification hearing in Philadephia, a hearing at which it is determined if the case will remain in adult court or if it will be sent back to juvenile court; or (b) the adult arraignment hearing in Phoenix, the point in the Arizona adult system at which charges have been formally presented.

Follow-up interviews were conducted with the main study participant every six months for the first three years of the study and annually thereafter through seven years. Collateral informants were interviewed at baseline and annually through the first three years.

Sample:  

Six potential cities/counties were investigated for potential selection before Phoenix and Philadelphia were finalized. These two areas were selected due to containing (a) high enough rates of serious crime committed by juveniles; (b) a diverse racial/ethnic mix of potential participants; (c) a sizable enough number of female offenders; (d) a contrast in the way the systems operate; (e) political support for the study and cooperation from the practitioners in the juvenile and criminal justice systems; and (f) the presence of experienced research collaborators to oversee the data collection.

Youth were selected for potential enrollment after a review of court files in each locale revealed that they had been adjudicated (found guilty) of a serious offense. Eligible crimes included all felony offenses with the exception of less serious property crimes, as well as misdemeanor weapons offenses and misdemeanor sexual assault.

Drug offenses constitute a large proportion of all offenses committed by youth. And males comprise the vast majority of youth who are charged with drug offenses. Therefore the study instituted a capped proportion of males with drug offenses to 15 percent of the sample at each site.

All females who met the age and adjudicated crime requirements, or any youth whose case was being considered for trial in the adult court system, were eligible for enrollment regardless if the charged crime was a drug offense.

Weight:   none

Mode of Data Collection:   computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

Description of Variables:  

Many of the same variable groups and actual questions asked of the collaterals are the exact same as what was asked of the subjects.

A crosswalk of the variable groups is provided at the front of each codebook showing what groups of questions were asked across the waves. For the three waves of follow-up (parts 2-4) the variables in each are exactly the same.

Response Rates:  

The number of subjects sampled for the Pathways series was 1,354. Each of the four collateral files contain a record for all 1,354 main study participants, even when the collateral interview was missed. With few exceptions (n=7), a collateral report is present only when a main study participant interview was completed. The following list provides the response rate for those collaterals who completed the interview. About 1-2 percent of the cases in each wave participated but only completed part of the questionnaire.

  • Baseline: 89 percent
  • 12 Month Follow-up: 82 percent of 1,354; 88 percent of main study parcipant interviews have a collateral report
  • 24 Month Follow-up: 80 percent of 1,354; 88 percent of main study participant interviews have a collateral report
  • 36 Month Follow-up: 82 percent of 1,354; 91 percent of main study participant interviews have a collateral report

Presence of Common Scales:  

This study used multiple scales. More detailed information about the scales is available on the Constructs page of the Pathways to Desistance Web site.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Related Publications ?

Variables

Browse Matching Variables

DS1: Baseline

C0 POrient: Youths Parenting Orientation
Youth Parenting Orientation; Mean of three items. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Youths Parenting Orientation scale was adapted for this study from Silverberg and Steinberg's (1990) subscale of Adult Role Orientation. The questions are asked only if the collateral reports the subject has a child. This scale is used to assess the collateral's interpretation of the participant's view of their role as a parent (e.g., "Parenting takes up more of X's time than he/she would really like it to"). The inventory in this interview is limited to 3-items for which the collateral is asked to rate their degree of agreement on a scale of 1 - 4 (1= Agree Strongly to 4= Disagree Strongly). Higher scores indicate greater parental orientation. (1) Disagree strongly (2) Disagree (3) Agree (4) Agree strongly Consult the Pathways Study Codebook for additional information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 OppSucc: Collateral perceptions of youths chances for success
Collateral's expectations of the subject to have work, family, & law; Mean of 6 items. MEASURE: Perceptions of Chances for Success The Perceptions of Chances for Success measure (also called perceptions of opportunity) was adapted from the work of Menard and Elliott (1996) to assess the adolescent's prediction of his/her future adult success. The collateral is asked 7 questions which tap expectations regarding the subject's future success: Expectations for Work, Family, and Law (e.g., "What do you think X's chances are to earn a good living?"). Collaterals respond on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from "Not at all important/Poor" to "Very important/Excellent". (1) Poor (2) Fair (3) Good (4) Very good (5) Excellent Consult the Pathways Study Codebook for additional information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 CommBased: Ever receive in-home counseling for youth/family
A marker for cases which have been involved with in-home services for youth/family. An ever question. MEASURE: Services and Medications The collateral's recall of the subject's participation in both residential and outpatient social services is assessed through a modified version of the CASA (Burns, et al., 1992). At the collateral baseline interview, collateral participants are asked if the subject has received services in a range of settings (e.g., alcohol/drug treatment, psychiatric treatment, hospitalizations, foster care, family counseling, detention/prison/jail stays, and priest/minister/ clergy visitations) across both the juvenile justice and the mental health sector. A history of medication use is also obtained (medication name and recency of last dose). Once endorsed, follow-up questions obtain the age at the initial receipt of the treatment and the recency of this service use. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 PMonit: Whether the collateral reporter lives with the subject
Does the collateral reporter live with the subject? MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, and Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). The collateral reporter provides answers to 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much do you know about how X spends his/her free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all" to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the collateral reporter, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the collateral reporter, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time at which X has to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". Consult the Pathways Study Codebook for additional information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 PMonit: Parental Knowledge
Parental knowledge; Mean of 5 items which are only available when the collateral is the subject's parent (biological, step, adoptive, or foster), grandparent or live-in boyfriend/girlfriend, and if they lived with the subject during the past six months. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, and Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). The collateral reporter provides answers to 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much do you know about how X spends his/her free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all" to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the collateral reporter, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the collateral reporter, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time at which X has to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Don't know at all (2) Know a little bit (3) Know a lot (4) Know everything Consult the Pathways Study Codebook for additional information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 PMonit: Parental Monitoring
Parental monitoring; Mean of 3 items which are only available when the collateral is the subject's parent (biological, step, adoptive, or foster), grandparent or live-in boyfriend/girlfriend, and if they lived with the subject during the past six months. MEASURE: Parent Orientation The Parental Monitoring inventory (Steinberg, Dornbusch, and Darling, 1992) was adapted for this study to assess parenting practices related to supervision of the adolescent (i.e. study participant). The collateral reporter provides answers to 9 items. Five items assess parental knowledge (e.g. How much do you know about how X spends his/her free time) and are answered on a 4-point likert scale ranging from "doesn't know at all" to "knows everything". Even if a youth does not live with the collateral reporter, they are asked these questions. If the youth lives with the collateral reporter, four additional items are asked to assess parental monitoring of the youth's behavior (e.g. How often do you have a set time at which X has to be home on weekend nights?). These are answered on a 4-point likert scale which ranges from "never" to "always". (1) Never (2) Sometimes (3) Usually (4) Always Consult the Pathways Study Codebook for additional information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 PCL: Has the subject ever hurt an animal on purpose
Has the subject ever hurt an animal on purpose? MEASURE: Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV) The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL-YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) assesses psychopathic characteristics among youth. For the Pathways study, all questions from the PCL-YV interview guide were incorporated into the subject baseline interview battery as well as the collateral interview battery. Information from these interviews was used to generate a report which combined the PCL-related answers from both the subject and collateral interview. With this information in hand, as well as information from court records, the interviewer completed the PCL-YV rating form. The PCL scores are provided in the subject database. Here, we provide just two individual items that were part of the collateral interview. These two items were used (among others) to score the PCL but we provide them to researchers due to their independent utility as indicators of risk. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 PCL: Is the subject a bully/does he/she threaten other people
Is the subject a bully/does he/she threaten other people? MEASURE: Psychopathy Checklist Youth Version (PCL-YV) The Psychopathy Checklist: Youth Version (PCL-YV; Forth, Kosson, & Hare, 2003) assesses psychopathic characteristics among youth. For the Pathways study, all questions from the PCL-YV interview guide were incorporated into the subject baseline interview battery as well as the collateral interview battery. Information from these interviews was used to generate a report which combined the PCL-related answers from both the subject and collateral interview. With this information in hand, as well as information from court records, the interviewer completed the PCL-YV rating form. The PCL scores are provided in the subject database. Here, we provide just two individual items that were part of the collateral interview. These two items were used (among others) to score the PCL but we provide them to researchers due to their independent utility as indicators of risk. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 YPI: Dishonest Charm
The sum of the 5 items contained in the [dishonest charm (e.g., X has the ability to con people by using his/her charm and smile)] subscale. MEASURE: Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin & Levander, 2002) is a self-report measure that assesses psychopathy among youth. We have asked these questions of both the subject and the collateral reporter. Items from the measure make up the following ten subscales: dishonest charm, grandiosity, lying, manipulation, remorselessness, unemotionality, callousness, thrill seeking, impulsiveness, and irresponsibility. Additionally, the measure taps three dimensions of psychopathy: Grandiose Manipulative Dimension, Callous Unemotional Dimension, and Impulsive Irresponsible Dimension. The scale contains 50 items to which participants respond on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from "Does not apply at all" to "Applies very well". Several items in the scale are reverse coded so that higher scores indicate more psychopathic characteristics. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C0 YPI: Grandiosity
The sum of the 5 items contained in the [grandiosity (e.g., X is better than everyone on almost everything)] subscale. MEASURE: Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI) The Youth Psychopathic Traits Inventory (YPI; Andershed, Kerr, Stattin & Levander, 2002) is a self-report measure that assesses psychopathy among youth. We have asked these questions of both the subject and the collateral reporter. Items from the measure make up the following ten subscales: dishonest charm, grandiosity, lying, manipulation, remorselessness, unemotionality, callousness, thrill seeking, impulsiveness, and irresponsibility. Additionally, the measure taps three dimensions of psychopathy: Grandiose Manipulative Dimension, Callous Unemotional Dimension, and Impulsive Irresponsible Dimension. The scale contains 50 items to which participants respond on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from "Does not apply at all" to "Applies very well". Several items in the scale are reverse coded so that higher scores indicate more psychopathic characteristics. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS2: 12-Month Follow-up

C1 Services: In the past year receive in-home counseling for youth/family
A marker for cases which have been involved with in-home services for youth/family in the past year. MEASURE: Services and Medications The collateral's recall of the subject's participation in both residential and outpatient social services is assessed through a modified version of the CASA (Burns, et al., 1992). At the collateral follow-up interview, collateral participants are asked if the subject has received services in a range of settings over the past year (e.g., alcohol/drug treatment, psychiatric treatment, hospitalizations, foster care, family counseling, detention/prison/jail stays, and priest/minister/clergy visitations) across both the juvenile justice and the mental health sector. The collateral also reports on whether the subject has taken any medication over the past year. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year - was the subject a member of a gang
In the past year, was the subject a member of a gang? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year - unique ID associated with this gang
Unique ID associated with the gang to which the subject belonged in the past year. MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Number of members
How many members are in this gang (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Age of the oldest member
What is the age of the oldest member of this gang (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have colors
Does this gang have any colors (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have rules
Does this gang have any rules (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang share money
Does this gang share money (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang share drugs
Does this gang share drugs (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C1 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have punishments for breaking the rules
Does this gang have punishments for breaking the rules (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS3: 24-Month Follow-up

C2 Services: In the past year receive in-home counseling for youth/family
A marker for cases which have been involved with in-home services for youth/family in the past year. MEASURE: Services and Medications The collateral's recall of the subject's participation in both residential and outpatient social services is assessed through a modified version of the CASA (Burns, et al., 1992). At the collateral follow-up interview, collateral participants are asked if the subject has received services in a range of settings over the past year (e.g., alcohol/drug treatment, psychiatric treatment, hospitalizations, foster care, family counseling, detention/prison/jail stays, and priest/minister/clergy visitations) across both the juvenile justice and the mental health sector. The collateral also reports on whether the subject has taken any medication over the past year. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year - was the subject a member of a gang
In the past year, was the subject a member of a gang? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year - unique ID associated with this gang
Unique ID associated with the gang to which the subject belonged in the past year. MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Number of members
How many members are in this gang (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Age of the oldest member
What is the age of the oldest member of this gang (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have colors
Does this gang have any colors (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have rules
Does this gang have any rules (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang share money
Does this gang share money (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang share drugs
Does this gang share drugs (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C2 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have punishments for breaking the rules
Does this gang have punishments for breaking the rules (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

DS4: 36-Month Follow-up

C3 Services: In the past year receive in-home counseling for youth/family
A marker for cases which have been involved with in-home services for youth/family in the past year. MEASURE: Services and Medications The collateral's recall of the subject's participation in both residential and outpatient social services is assessed through a modified version of the CASA (Burns, et al., 1992). At the collateral follow-up interview, collateral participants are asked if the subject has received services in a range of settings over the past year (e.g., alcohol/drug treatment, psychiatric treatment, hospitalizations, foster care, family counseling, detention/prison/jail stays, and priest/minister/clergy visitations) across both the juvenile justice and the mental health sector. The collateral also reports on whether the subject has taken any medication over the past year. Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year - was the subject a member of a gang
In the past year, was the subject a member of a gang? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year - unique ID associated with this gang
Unique ID associated with the gang to which the subject belonged in the past year. MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Number of members
How many members are in this gang (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Age of the oldest member
What is the age of the oldest member of this gang (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have colors
Does this gang have any colors (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have rules
Does this gang have any rules (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang share money
Does this gang share money (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang share drugs
Does this gang share drugs (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).
C3 Gang: Past year gang - Does the gang have punishments for breaking the rules
Does this gang have punishments for breaking the rules (refers to the gang in c#gangcode_pastyear)? MEASURE: Gang Involvement This measure includes a series of questions to assess the youth's gang involvement over the past year based on the collateral report. The questions are taken mainly from Thornberry, Lizotte, Krohn, Farnworth, and Jang, (1994) and Elliott (1990). If gang involvement is endorsed, additional items explore the collateral reporter's perception of the youth's subjective experience of the gang (i.e. youth's position in the gang, the importance of the gang to the youth) and the cohesiveness of the gang (i.e. presence of identifying colors, rules of socialization). Consult the Pathways Study codebook for more information (www.pathwaysstudy.pitt.edu).

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