Census of Population and Housing 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample: Artist Extract Files (ICPSR 35534)
The Research Division of the National Endowment for the Arts has prepared Artist Extracts from the Census Public Use Microdata Samples (PUMS) from 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000. The extracts are intended to reduce the file size and make it easier to use census data to conduct research on artist occupations. The files contain records of all persons in households with one or more persons having a detailed occupation code considered "artist" by NEA. These occupations include: actors and directors; announcers; architects; authors; dancers; designers; musicians and composers; painters, sculptors, craft-artists, and artist printmakers; photographers; teachers of art, drama, and music in higher education; and artists, performers, and related workers not elsewhere classified. Data were collected primarily from self-enumerated questionnaires distributed to these households by the Census corresponding to the year of collection. This data collection provides information about housing, labor force, and respondents' demographic information. The number of respondents across the data files ranges from 90,632 to 303, 541.
The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.
WARNING: This study is over 150MB in size and may take several minutes to download on a typical internet connection.
United States Department of Commerce. Bureau of the Census, and National Endowment for the Arts. Census of Population and Housing 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2000 [United States]: Public Use Microdata Sample: Artist Extract Files. ICPSR35534-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-02-13. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35534.v1
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35534.v1
This study was funded by:
- National Endowment for the Arts
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: actors, armed forces, artists, authors, disabilities, employment, income, industry, musicians, occupational categories, occupations, painters, performing arts, sculptors, theater, visual arts
Geographic Coverage: United States
This data collection was previously distributed by the Cultural Policy and the Arts National Data Archive (CPANDA). The CPANDA Identification Number (study number) for the entire data collection is c00017. The CPANDA Identification number for the 1970 Artists Extract File is a00222, for the 1980 Artists Extract File is a00223, for the 1990 Artists Extract File is a00224, and for the 2000 Artists Extract File is a00250. CPANDA conducted the following processing steps for release of this collection: produced a codebook, checked for undocumented codes, performed consistency checks, provided frequencies, and reformatted the data.
Occupation categories changed between 1970 and 2000. For information on how to compare the 1970 and 1980 occupations, see the NEA publication "Where Artists Live 1980" (available as a report in this collection) which compares data from the 1970 and 1980 artist extracts. For information on the transition from the 1980 to the 2000 system, see Revising the Standard Occupational Classification System (also available as a report in this collection). Occupation codes list for the 1970 Artist Extract File is in Chapter 2 of the corresponding User Guide. Occupation codes lists for 1980-2000 are available in the appendices to the User Guides for the 1980-2000 Artist Extract Files.
Most 1980 PUMS deposited with CPANDA normally consist of three sample files (A, B, and C) with different geographic schemes. However, the 1980 Artist Extract file deposited with CPANDA consisted of the A and B samples only. The A sample identifies all states, most counties with 100,000 or more inhabitants, and other subdivisions within the state. The B sample identifies all metropolitan territory, most standard metropolitan statistical areas (SMSAs), as well as groups of counties. The C sample, missing from this merged data file, identifies regions, divisions, and most states by level of urbanicity.
There were no blank fields or missing data in the 1970-1990 PUMS files. Allocated values were used in the 1970-2000 PUMS files for some situations of missing data and out-of-range values caused by incomplete questionnaires, inconsistent information, or equipment malfunction. Indicators, such as "Not applicable" or "Not in universe," were used for other missing data cases. Detailed explanation of using allocation flags can be found in Chapter 3 of the User Guides for the 1980 and 1990 Artist Extract Files and in Chapter 4 of the User Guides for the 1970 and 2000 Artist Extract Files.
Quick Facts for this data collection, "National Trends in Artist Occupations," are available from the Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies (CACPS) at Princeton University.
The Census Bureau is legally bound to strict confidentiality requirements. Individual records are not shared with anyone, including federal agencies and law enforcement entities. By law, the Census Bureau cannot share respondents' answers with anyone or any government agency.
Due to the limit in the number of allowable rows of 65,536 and allowable columns of 256 in Excel 97-2003 (file ending, xls), the Excel files being distributed with this collection are in the later version of Excel (file ending of xlsx).
The 1970 Public Use Microdata Sample (PUMS) was obtained through a representative sample, consisting of one sample unit for every one hundred such units in the population. Three such samples were drawn from a 15% sample of the population and three were drawn from a 5% sample. The 1970 Census had two long form questionnaires; one was used for the 15% sample and one was used for the 5% sample. The artist extract file contains PUMS data on persons in households in the United States with one or more persons having a detailed occupation code considered "artist" by the NEA.
For the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Artist Extract Files, a PUMS was obtained through a stratified sample, consisting of a subsample of the household units that received Census "long-form" questionnaire. The artist extract file contains PUMS data on persons in households in the United States with one or more persons having a detailed occupation code considered "artist" by the NEA. In areas where respondents were to mail back their questionnaires, an enumerator visited each address from which a questionnaire was not received. Respondents were contacted by telephone or personal visit to obtain missing information if a questionnaire did not meet specific quality standards because of incomplete or inconsistent information or the respondent indicated difficulty in deciding who was to be listed as part of the household.
The 1970 Artist Extract File contains data for 217,758 respondents. The 1980 Artist Extract File contains information for 164,124 respondents. Data from the 1990 Artist Extract File contain information for 303,541 respondents. The 2000 Artist Extract File contains information for 90,632 respondents.
For the 1970 Artist Extract file, each PUMS is a representative sample of the records from the 1970 Census sample questionnaires. The primary sample size is 1-in-100 or one sample unit (household, vacant unit, or person in group quarters) for every 100 such units in the population. Of the 1970 samples, three 1/100 samples were drawn from the 15-percent sample data, and three from the 5-percent sample data, one for each of the three options for geographic information: county groups, states, and geographic divisions with neighborhood characteristics. Any one sample contains only one of these types of information. The artist extract file filtered the records to obtain all individuals in households where at least one occupant has a detailed occupation code considered "artist" by the NEA.
For the 1980, 1990, and 2000 Artist Extract Files, a PUMS was obtained through a stratified sample, consisting of a subsample of the household units that received the Census "long-form" questionnaire. The artist extract file contains PUMS data on persons in households in the United States with one or more persons having a detailed occupation code considered "artist" by the NEA.
The data contain weight variables.
- The 1980 Artist Extract File contains MIGWGT (Migration/Place of Work/Travel Time Weight).
- The 1990 Artist Extract File contains HOUSWGT (Housing Unit Weight) and PWGT1 (Person's Weight).
- The 2000 Artist Extract File contains HWEIGHT (Housing Unit Weight) and WEIGHT (Person Weight).
For further details regarding weight variables, please refer to Chapters 2 and 3 of the User Guide for the 1980 Artist Extract File, Chapter 4 of the User Guide for the 1990 Artist Extract File, and Chapter 5 of the User Guide for the 2000 Artist Extract File.
Description of Variables: Variables for this data collection provide housing data including composition of household, family type, place of residence, household facilities, and household costs, such as rent, property tax, insurance costs, and property value. This data collection also contains information about labor force data containing current estimates of the economic status and activities of this population which includes estimates of total employment (both farm and nonfarm), nonfarm self-employed persons, domestics, and unpaid helpers in nonfarm family enterprises, wage and salaried employees, and estimates of total unemployment. Respondents were asked about demographic information: age, sex, race, marital status, educational attainment, ancestry, family relationship, industry, and occupation, noting the occupation status of those considered "artists" by the NEA within the workforce.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Created online analysis version with question text.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2015-02-13
- 2015-03-17 The metadata and the codebook for the 1980 Artist Extract File were updated to provide further information for variable MIGWGT. As well, the search capability of most questionnaires, user guides, and reports were enhanced using Acrobat's Text Recognition tool.
- Citations exports are provided above.
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