Johnson, Bruce D.
This data collection compares a sample of persons arrested
for offenses related to crack cocaine with a sample arrested for
offenses related to powdered cocaine. The collection is one of two
parts of a study designed to examine the characteristics of crack
users and sellers, the impact of large numbers of crack-related
offenders on the criminal justice system, and their effects on drug
treatment and community programs. Official arrest records and
supplementary data bases are used to analyze the official arrest,
conviction, and incarceration histories of powdered cocaine and crack
defendants. Questions addressed by the collection include: (1) How
are defendants charged with crack-related offenses different from
defendants charged with offenses related to powdered cocaine? (2) Is
there a difference between the ways the criminal justice system
handles crack offenders and powdered cocaine offenders in pretrial
detention, charges filed, case dispositions, and sentencing? (3) How
do the criminal careers of crack offenders compare with the criminal
careers of powdered cocaine offenders, especially in terms of total
arrest rates, frequencies of nondrug crimes, and frequencies of
violent crimes? (4) Is violence more strongly associated with crack
dealing than with powdered cocaine dealing? and (5) How does the
developmental history of powdered cocaine sales and possession compare
with the history of crack sales and possession? Variables include
demographic information such as gender, residence, and race, arrest,
conviction, and incarceration histories, prior criminal record,
community ties, and court outcomes of the arrests.
Fagan, Jeffrey, Steven Belenko, and Bruce D. Johnson. CHANGING PATTERNS OF DRUG ABUSE AND CRIMINALITY AMONG CRACK COCAINE USERS IN NEW YORK CITY: CRIMINAL HISTORIES AND CRIMINAL JUSTICE SYSTEM PROCESSING, 1983-1984, 1986. Los Altos, CA: Sociometrics Corporation [producer], 1991. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09790.v1
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09790.v1
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This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (87-IJ-CX-0064)
Scope of Study
criminal justice system,
New York City,
New York (state),
Date of Collection:
Individuals arrested by the New York City Police
Department for crack-related offenses (August through October of 1986)
or powdered cocaine-related offenses (1983-1984).
administrative records data
The data collection utilized a matched cohort research
design in which a sample of defendants arrested for offenses related
to crack cocaine was drawn and compared with a similarly drawn matched
sample of defendants arrested for offenses related to powdered
cocaine. A total of 3,403 persons in the crack cohort and 3,424
persons in the powdered cocaine cohort were sampled.
(1) New York City Police Department Booking system, (2)
New York City Criminal Justice Agency, Inc., database, and (3) New
York State Division of Criminal Justice Services fingerprint-based
criminal records system
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Standardized missing values.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 1992-10-31
- 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one
or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well
as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable,
and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to
reflect these additions.
- 2002-06-27 SAS and SPSS data definition statements were
created for this collection and the codebook was converted to PDF.
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