Nature and Sanctioning of White Collar Crime, 1976-1978: Federal Judicial Districts (ICPSR 8989)

Principal Investigator(s): Wheeler, Stanton; Weisburd, David; Bode, Nancy


This data collection, one of only a small number available on federal white collar crimes, focuses on white collar criminals and the nature of their offenses. The data contain information on the source of conviction, offense category, number of counts in the indictment, maximum prison time and maximum fine associated with the offense, the duration and geographic spread of the offense, number of participants, number of persons arrested, number of businesses indicted, and spouse's employment. The data are limited to crimes committed solely by convicted individuals and do not include defendants that are organizations or groups. The defendant's socioeconomic status is measured using the Duncan Index. Further information provided about the defendant includes age, sex, marital status, past criminal history, neighborhood environment, education, and employment history.

Access Notes

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions ; consult the restrictions note to learn more. You can apply online for access to the restricted-use data. A login is required to apply.

    Access to these data is restricted. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

    Any public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


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Study Description


Wheeler, Stanton, David Weisburd, and Nancy Bode. NATURE AND SANCTIONING OF WHITE COLLAR CRIME, 1976-1978: FEDERAL JUDICIAL DISTRICTS. 2nd ICPSR version. New Haven, CT: Stanton Wheeler, David Weisburd, and Nancy Bode, Yale University [producers], 1978. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000.

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (78-NI-AX-0017)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    convictions (law), criminal histories, federal courts, offenders, offenses, sentencing, white collar crime

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1976--1978

Date of Collection:   

  • 1979--1980

Universe:    Convicted white collar criminals in federal judicial districts representing metropolitan centers, specifically, central California, northern Georgia, northern Illinois, Maryland, southern New York, northern Texas, and western Washington.

Data Type(s):    event/transaction data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) The appendices mentioned in the documentation are not presently available. (2) The data in columns 452-467 and 471-483 are undocumented. (3) Users are encouraged to read additional sampling information in the codebook abstract. (4) The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) files. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    The main sampling strategy involved the selection of up to 30 individuals for each of eight offense types (bribery, bank embezzlement, mail and wire fraud, tax fraud, false claims and statements, credit and lending institution fraud, postal theft, and postal forgery) in seven federal judicial districts. Some districts had fewer than 30 individuals convicted for specific offense categories. In addition, the dataset includes all known individual co-defendants of these core sample members, all individuals convicted of securities and antitrust offenses in federal courts nationally, and a "common crime" sample. Since all offenders convicted of securities fraud and antitrust offenses in all of the federal districts during the three fiscal years were examined, the sample contains a higher proportion of these offenders than the other offenses.

Data Source:

pre-sentence investigation reports for fiscal years 1976, 1977, and 1978 from the Administrative Office of United States Courts


Original ICPSR Release:   1989-01-10

Version History:

  • 2000-12-08 These data are now available through the Restricted Access Archive. Sampling information in the codebook was revised as requested by the principal investigator, and the codebook is now available as a PDF file. In addition, the SAS data definition statements were revised and SPSS data definition statements were added to the collection.

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