Rafter, Nicole Hahn
This data collection focused on problems in the women's
correctional system over a 135-year period. More specifically, it
examined the origins and development of prisoner and sentencing
characteristics in three states. Demographic data on female inmates
cover age, race, parents' place of birth, prisoner's occupation,
religion, and marital status. Other variables include correctional
facilities, offenses, minimum and maximum sentences, prior
commitments, method of release from prison, and presence of crime
One or more data files in this study are set up in a non-standard format, such as card image format. Users
may need help converting these files before they can be used for analysis.
The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public.
Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.
Rafter, Nicole Hahn. WOMEN IN PRISON, 1800-1935: TENNESSEE, NEW YORK, AND OHIO. 2nd ICPSR version. Boston, MA: Northeastern University, College of Criminal Justice [producer], 1980. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2000. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08481.v2
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR08481.v2
- RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
- EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (79-NI-AX-0039)
Scope of Study
criminal justice system,
Date of Collection:
All women housed in state prisons in the United States
from 1800 to 1935.
Data Collection Notes:
The codebook and data collection instrument for this
collection are provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF)
file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated
and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe
Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat
Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.
In Tennessee, New York, and Ohio, cases were identified
from official prison records that included a time span of ten years
before and after the opening of separate women's state prisons.
official prison records
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 1986-08-18
- 2000-10-16 SAS and SPSS data definition statements have been
added to this collection, and the codebook and data collection
instrument are now available as a PDF file. ICPSR also checked the
data for undocumented codes.
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