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Evaluation of the Impact of Innovative Policing Programs on Social Disorder in Seven Cities in the United States, 1983-1990 (ICPSR 6215) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

This study was designed to permit a "meta-evaluation" of the impact of alternative policing programs on social disorder. Examples of social disorder include bands of teenagers deserting school and congregating on street corners, solicitation by prostitutes and panhandlers, public drinking, vandalism, verbal harassment of women on the street, street violence, and open gambling and drug use. The data used in this study were taken from studies conducted between 1983 and 1990 in seven cities. For this collection, a common set of questions was identified and recoded into a consistent format across studies. The studies were conducted using similar sampling and interviewing procedures, and in almost every case used a quasi-experimental research design. For each target area studied, a different, matched area was designated as a comparison area where no new policing programs were begun. Surveys of residents were conducted in the target and comparison areas before the programs began (Wave I) and again after they had been in operation for a period ranging from ten months to two-and-a-half years (Wave II). The data contain information regarding police visibility and contact, encounters with police, victimization, fear and worry about crime, household protection and personal precautions, neighborhood conditions and problems, and demographic characteristics of respondents including race, marital status, employment status, education, sex, age, and income. The policing methods researched included community-oriented policing and traditional intensive enforcement programs.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

DS1:  Main Data File - Download All Files (40.4 MB)
DS2:  SAS Data Definition Statements - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS3:  User Guide
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.

Study Description

Citation

Skogan, Wesley G. EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF INNOVATIVE POLICING PROGRAMS ON SOCIAL DISORDER IN SEVEN CITIES IN THE UNITED STATES, 1983-1990. Evanston, IL: Wesley G. Skogan [producer], 1993. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06215.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (92-IJ-CX-0008)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   civil disorders, demographic characteristics, fear of crime, neighborhood conditions, neighborhoods, police intervention, police response, program evaluation, victimization

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1983--1990

Date of Collection:  

  • 1983--1990

Unit of Observation:   Individuals.

Universe:   Residents aged 19 years and older in the cities of Houston, TX, Newark, NJ, Baltimore, MD, Madison, WI, Birmingham, AL, Oakland, CA, and Denver, CO.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Many of the variables in this dataset have a high proportion of missing data. This is primarily because not all questions were asked in each of the original studies. The original studies on which this data collection is based include REDUCING FEAR OF CRIME: PROGRAM EVALUATION SURVEYS IN NEWARK AND HOUSTON, 1983-1984 (ICPSR 8496), COMMUNITY POLICING IN BALTIMORE, 1986-1987 (ICPSR 9401), and MODERN POLICING AND THE CONTROL OF ILLEGAL DRUGS: TESTING NEW STRATEGIES IN OAKLAND, CA, AND BIRMINGHAM, AL, 1987-1989 (ICPSR 9962), and two other studies expected to be acquired by ICPSR: "Quality Policing in Madison: An Evaluation of Its Implementation and Impact," conducted by Mary Ann Wycoff and Wesley G. Skogan, and "Drug Enforcement in Public Housing: Signs of Success in Denver," conducted by Sampson Annan and Wesley G. Skogan.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   This study was designed to permit a "meta-evaluation" of the impact of alternative policing programs on social disorder. Examples of social disorder include bands of teenagers deserting school and congregating on street corners, solicitation by prostitutes and panhandlers, public drinking, vandalism, verbal harassment of women on the street, street violence, and open gambling and drug use. The policing methods researched included community-oriented policing and traditional intensive enforcement programs.

Study Design:   The data used in this study were taken from surveys conducted between 1983 and 1990 in seven cities. For this collection, a common set of questions was identified and recoded into a consistent format across studies. The studies were conducted using similar sampling and interviewing procedures, and in almost every case used a quasi-experimental research design. For each target area studied, a different, matched area was designated as a comparison area where no new policing programs were begun. Surveys of residents were conducted in the target and comparison areas before the programs began (Wave I) and again after they had been in operation for a period ranging from ten months to two-and-a-half years (Wave II).

Sample:   The original studies used random sampling.

Data Source:

personal interviews and telephone interviews

Description of Variables:   Survey respondents were asked questions regarding police visibility and contact, encounters with police, victimization, fear and worry about crime, household protection and personal precautions, and neighborhood conditions and problems. Demographic information was collected including race, marital status, employment status, education, sex, age, and income. In some cities, not all the variables were available. Variables in the dataset that begin with a "Z" represent responses to Wave II questions, while the other variables are from Wave I.

Response Rates:   The percentages of individuals reinterviewed in each of the seven original studies are as follows. Houston: 57 percent, Newark: 48 percent, Baltimore: 70 percent, Madison: 62 percent, Birmingham: 76 percent, Oakland: 64 percent, and Denver: 80 percent.

Presence of Common Scales:   Responses to the survey questions were primarily recorded using dichotomous and Likert-type scales.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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