The Source for Crime and Justice Data

Evaluation of the Focused Offender Disposition Program in Birmingham, Phoenix, and Chicago, 1988-1992 (ICPSR 6214) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The Drug Testing Technology/Focused Offender Disposition (FOD) program was designed to examine two issues regarding drug users in the criminal justice system: (1) the utility of need assessment instruments in appropriately determining the level of treatment and/or supervision needed by criminal offenders with a history of drug use, and (2) the use of urinalysis monitoring as a deterrent to subsequent drug use. This data collection consists of four datasets from three sites. The FOD program was first established in Birmingham, Alabama, and Phoenix, Arizona, in December 1988 and ran through August 1990. The Chicago, Illinois, program began in October 1990 and ended in March 1992. These first three programs studied probationers with a history of recent drug use who were not incarcerated while awaiting sentencing. The subjects were assessed with one of two different treatment instruments. Half of all clients were assessed with the objective Offender Profile Index (OPI) created by the National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD). The other half were assessed with the local instrument administered in each site by Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC), Inc. Regardless of which assessment procedure was used, offenders were then randomly assigned to one of two groups. Half of all offenders assessed by the OPI and half of the offenders assessed by the local instrument were assigned to a control group that received only random urinalysis monitoring regardless of the drug treatment intervention strategy prescribed by the assessment instrument. The other half of offenders in each assessment group were assigned to a treatment group that received appropriate drug intervention treatment. The Phoenix pilot study (Part 4), which ran from March 1991 to May 1992, was designed like the first Phoenix study, except that the sample for the pilot study was drawn from convicted felons who were jailed prior to sentencing and who were expected to be sentenced to probation. These data contain administrative information, such as current offense, number of arrests, number of convictions, and prior charges. The need assessment instruments were used to gather data on clients' living arrangements, educational and vocational backgrounds, friendships, history of mental problems, drug use history, and scores measuring stakes in conformity. In addition, the study specifically collected information on the monitoring of the clients while in the FOD program, including the number of urinalyses administered and their results, as well as the placement of clients in treatment programs. The files also contain demographic information, such as age, race, sex, and education.

Access Notes

  • One or more files in this study are not available for download due to special restrictions ; consult the restrictions note to learn more. You can apply online for access to the data. A login is required to apply for access.

    A downloadable version of data for this study is available however, certain identifying information in the downloadable version may have been masked or edited to protect respondent privacy. Additional data not included in the downloadable version are available in a restricted version of this data collection. For more information about the differences between the downloadable data and the restricted data for this study, please refer to the codebook notes section of the PDF codebook. Users interested in obtaining restricted data must complete and sign a Restricted Data Use Agreement, describe the research project and data protection plan, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
Documentation:
DS1:  Birmingham Data - Download All Files (3.1 MB)
DS2:  Phoenix Data - Download All Files (2.6 MB)
DS3:  Chicago Data - Download All Files (2.9 MB)
Data:
DS4:  Phoenix In-Jail Pilot Data - Download All Files (2.5 MB)

Study Description

Citation

Hepburn, John R. EVALUATION OF THE FOCUSED OFFENDER DISPOSITION PROGRAM IN BIRMINGHAM, PHOENIX, AND CHICAGO, 1988-1992. ICPSR version. Tempe, AZ: Arizona State University [producer], 1993. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1999. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06214.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (89-DD-CX-0056, 90-IJ-CX-0064, 92-IJ-CX-0004)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   criminal justice system, drug offenders, drug testing, drug treatment, needs assessment, probationers, program evaluation, treatment programs, urinalysis

Geographic Coverage:   Alabama, Arizona, Birmingham, Chicago, Illinois, Phoenix, United States

Unit of Observation:   Individuals.

Universe:   Probationers.

Data Types:   clinical data, survey data, and administrative records data

Data Collection Notes:

The user guide, codebook, and data collection instruments are provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided through the ICPSR Website on the Internet.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   The Drug Testing Technology/Focused Offender Disposition (FOD) program was designed to examine two questions regarding drug users in the criminal justice system. One was the utility of need assessment instruments in appropriately determining the level of treatment and/or supervision needed by criminal offenders with a history of drug use. Specifically, the researchers wanted to test whether the Offender Profile Index instrument provided a more accurate assessment of the treatment needs of drug-using probationers than the local assessment instrument used at each site. The second question focused on the use of urinalysis monitoring as a deterrent to subsequent drug use. Researchers asked whether urinalysis monitoring alone was as successful as when urinalysis monitoring was combined with some standard treatment-based intervention. After the completion of the original FOD program in Phoenix, a pilot program was developed to include only those offenders on probation who were detained in jail prior to sentencing. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess the constraints involved in implementing a FOD program with this particular offender population. In addition, the researchers sought to compare the success of urinalysis monitoring between regular probationers and probationers who served jail time prior to sentencing.

Study Design:   The FOD program was first established in Birmingham, Alabama, and Phoenix, Arizona, in December 1988 and ran through August 1990. The Chicago, Illinois, program began in October 1990 and ended in March 1992. The program at each site provided an experimental design for evaluative analysis. The design called for probationers with a history of recent drug use to be assessed with one of two different treatment instruments. Half of all clients were assessed with the objective Offender Profile Index (OPI) designed by the National Association of State Alcohol and Drug Abuse Directors (NASADAD). The other half were assessed with the local instrument administered in each site by Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC), Inc., a nationwide service provider that assesses and sometimes treats drug users. The local TASC instrument in Birmingham and Chicago was a highly subjective clinical interview, while the Phoenix TASC assessment was a more objective instrument called the Risk Assessment Scale (RAS). After administering the instrument, the clients' levels of assessed need were grouped into four categories: (1) urinalysis only, (2) outpatient care with urinalysis, (3) short-term residential care with urinalysis, and (4) long-term residential care with urinalysis. Regardless of which assessment procedure was used, offenders were then randomly assigned to one of two groups. Half of all offenders assessed by the OPI and half of the offenders assessed by the local instrument were assigned to a control group. Control group clients received only a program of random urinalysis monitoring, regardless of the drug treatment intervention strategy prescribed by the assessment instrument. The other half of offenders in each assessment group were assigned to the treatment group. These clients received the drug intervention treatment consistent with their assessed need for treatment. Due to important differences in the implementation of the FOD program at each site and the characteristics of the probationers who participated in the program, comparisons among the three sites are not recommended. The Phoenix pilot study, which ran from March 1991 to May 1992, was designed like the first Phoenix study, except that the sample for the pilot study was drawn from convicted felons who were jailed prior to sentencing and who were expected to be sentenced to probation.

Sample:   The original FOD program included offenders with a history of recent drug use who were placed on probation and who were not incarcerated while awaiting sentencing. Participation was mandated in Birmingham and in some cases in Chicago, and voluntary in Phoenix and in some cases in Chicago. The Phoenix follow-up pilot study participants were referred to the program by pre-sentence investigators and included only those qualified offenders who were incarcerated while awaiting sentencing.

Data Source:

administrative records from Treatment Alternatives to Street Crime (TASC), Inc., and local probation offices, and personal interviews

Description of Variables:   These data contain administrative information, such as current offense, number of arrests, number of convictions, and prior charges. The need assessment instruments were used to gather data on clients' living arrangements, educational and vocational backgrounds, friendships, history of mental problems, drug use history, and scores measuring stakes in conformity. In addition, the study specifically collected information on the monitoring of the clients while in the FOD program, including the number of urinalyses administered and their results, as well as the placement of clients in treatment programs. The files also contain demographic information, such as age, race, sex, and education.

Response Rates:   Not applicable.

Presence of Common Scales:   Several Likert-type scales were used.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2006-03-30 File CB6214.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

Related Publications

Utilities

Metadata Exports

If you're looking for collection-level metadata rather than an individual metadata record, please visit our Metadata Records page.

Download Statistics