Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) Implementation and Collaborative Process: What Works Best for the Criminal Justice System? 2010-2013 [UNITED STATES] (ICPSR 34795)

Principal Investigator(s): Campbell, Rebecca, Michigan State University; Greeson, Megan, DePaul University; Bybee, Deborah, Michigan State University; Neal, Jennifer Watling, Michigan State University

Summary:

Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) are interventions that were created to coordinate efforts of the legal, medical, mental health systems, and rape crisis centers, in order to improve victims' help seeking experiences and legal outcomes. This study examined the relationship between SART structure and effectiveness by conducting a national scale study of SARTs and a smaller detailed network analysis of four SARTs.

Access Notes

  • These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme file for a brief description of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed.

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions ; consult the restrictions note to learn more. You can apply online for access to the restricted-use data. A login is required to apply.

    Access to these data is restricted. Users interested in obtaining these data must complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

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Study Description

Citation

Campbell, Rebecca, Megan Greeson, Deborah Bybee, and Jennifer Watling Neal. Sexual Assault Response Team (SART) Implementation and Collaborative Process: What Works Best for the Criminal Justice System? 2010-2013 [UNITED STATES]. ICPSR34795-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-27. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34795.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34795.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2010-WG-BX-0010)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    community organizations, community service programs, forensic medicine, forensic sciences, mental health, organizational behavior, organizational structure, organizations, police, prosecution, rape, sex offenses, sexual assault

Smallest Geographic Unit:    Census region

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 2010--2013

Date of Collection:   

  • 2012-08--2013-02 (Study 2 Network Analysis)

Unit of Observation:    Organization

Universe:   

Study 1 National Survey: Sexual Assault Response Teams in the United States.

Study 2 Network Analysis: Sexual Assault Response Teams from Study 1 National Survey's High Adopters Plus Evaluation Cluster.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

These data are part of NACJD's Fast Track Release and are distributed as they were received from the data depositor. The files have been zipped by NACJD for release, but not checked or processed except for the removal of direct identifiers. Users should refer to the accompanying readme file for a brief description of the files available with this collection and consult the investigator(s) if further information is needed.

Study 2 Network Analysis contains data structured for social networking analysis. Please see the User Guide for more information.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   

The purpose of Study 1 National Survey was to conduct a national-scale study of Sexual Assault Response Teams (SARTs) in order to:

  1. Understand the structure and functioning of United States SARTs.
  2. Identify patterns of SART implementation.
  3. Examine how these different patterns relate to perceived effectiveness at improvements in legal practice and outcomes.

The purpose of Study 2 Network Analysis was to examine patterns of collaborative relationships within model SARTs:

  1. To understand the nature and distribution of each of these types of inter-organizational relationships within model SARTs. For example, are SARTs characterized by many or few inter-organizational relationships? Do organizations in SARTs tend to have relationships that are reciprocated? Are relationships centered around a focal organization or group of organizations?
  2. To understand the associations between these types of inter-organizational relationships. In other words, within SARTs, do inter-organizational relationships tend to be similar across networks of communication frequency, feeling valued by other organizations, and valuing other organizations' work?

Study Design:   

For Study 1 National Survey random sampling methods were used to identify a nationally representative sample of n=172 SARTs which engaged in multidisciplinary coordination in the response to sexual assault, meet regularly, and responding to adult sexual assault victims. A semi-structured phone interview was conducted with a key informant, such as a SART leader or coordinator, asking them to provide information about both their perceptions of SARTs' effectiveness, and structural characteristics of their SART. The interview asked specific questions on membership breadth, such as the number of different stakeholder groups that participated in the collaboration; aspects of implementation, such as their use of formal resources and structures to organize their work; and extent to which they institutionalize various collaborative activities into their teamwork in order to promote change. Based on these features, cluster analysis was used to empirically derive patterns of SART implementation.

Study 2 Network Analysis sought to deepen the understanding of how SART structure relates to SART perceived effectiveness by examining the structure of inter-organizational relationships within SARTs. Based on Study 1 results, four model SARTs (high use of formal structures and institutionalization of collaborative activities, and all engaging in program evaluation) were sampled. Phone interviews were conducted with a key informant from each of the members of the SART. Three types of collaborative relationships were assessed: inter-organizational communication about coordinating the response to sexual assault, believing that other organizations value their organizations role in the response to sexual assault, and believing that other organizations are a resource to their organization's work in responding to sexual assault. Researchers employed social network analysis to study these inter-organizational relationships.

Sample:   

Study 1 National Survey

To be selected a SART had to engage in multidisciplinary coordination in the response to sexual assault, meet regularly, and respond to adult sexual assault victims. SARTs that only served child sexual assault victims were excluded from the study. A total of 864 SARTs were identified from International Association of Forensic Nurses' (IAFN) registry of Sexual Assault Nurse Examiner programs, SANE-SART.com's registry of SANE-SART member organizations, subscribers to the National Sexual Violence Resource Center's SART list-serv, state sexual assault coalitions, academic literature, practitioner SART manuals, and Google search. A target of 170 SARTs were to be interviewed, 268 were recruited to participate in the study, 81 were successfully reached and deemed to be ineligible, because they did not serve adult victims, the SART did not exist, or the SART had stopped meeting. Of the remaining 187 teams, 11 did not successfully complete the interviews and four refused to participate. In all 172 interviews were completed.

Study 2 Network Analysis

SARTs were selected from the High Adopters Plus Evaluation Cluster in Study 1 National Survey, which was characterized by high use of formal structures and high institutionalize of collaborative activities. Of the ten SARTs that were sampled, two were successfully contacted but were ineligible to participate, of the remaining eight eligible SARTs, two were contacted but was unable to reach an agreement to participate before data collection ended, one was never successfully contacted, one declined participation, and four participated in the study.

Time Method:    Cross-sectional

Mode of Data Collection:    telephone interview

Description of Variables:   

Study 1 National Survey (n=172) contains 120 variables on: SART's operational history; respondent's demographics, education level, and title and tenure in the SART; which groups the SART represents; number of members in the SART; organization structure and formalization, such as existence of written mission statement, recorded meeting minutes, formal procedures and bylaws; use of program evaluation; institutionalization of case review, cross training, and policy/protocols; SART's effectiveness in victims engagement with investigation, producing evidence, willingness to prosecute, and engagement with court officials; SART's effectiveness in improving support for victims in criminal justice process, quality of forensic evidence, knowledge and utilization of medical evidence by the police and prosecutors, law enforcement's investigations, police and prosecutors building rapport with victims, medical personnel's expert witness testimony, and prosecutors preparing victims for testimony; whether SART's efforts led to victims more likely to receive referrals to medical, mental health, and advocacy services; whether SART's efforts led to responders providing better service to victims and being more sensitive toward victims; whether SART's efforts lead to victims having more positive experience with legal systems, medical systems, health systems, and advocacy; region the SART is located; participant's stakeholder group; legal effectiveness of victim participation, prosecution, and police; and cluster analysis dummy variables.

Study 2 Network Analysis is composed of sets of 4 files containing SART networking data prepared for network analysis, one for each of the 4 sampled SARTs.

  • Raw Data files are the raw data coded from the interviews and contains variables on respondent's gender, age, race, and education level, respondent's opinion on how other members valued his/her organization's role and value of other organizations to his/her organization's work, and SART's communication frequency with other members of the SART.
  • Continuous Data files are the Raw Data files prepared for data analysis by agglomerating data for organizations with multiple respondents. They contain variables on respondent's opinion on how other members valued his/her organization's role and value of other organizations to his/her organization's work, and organization's communication frequency with other members of the SART.
  • Positive vs. Negative or Non-Existent Relationship files are derived from the Continuous Data files with the variables dichotomized to simple positive/negative markers. They contain variables on respondent's opinion on how other members valued his/her organization's role and value of other organizations to his/her organization's work, and organization's communication frequency with other members of the SART.
  • Attributes Data files contain variables on whether the respondent's organization is a primary or tertiary responder, whether it provides social/medical services or is part of the criminal justice system, and if the organization serves more than one county.

Please see the User Guide for more detailed description of the Study 2 Network Analysis data files.

Response Rates:   

Study 1 National Survey: 92%

Study 2 Network Analysis: 50%

Presence of Common Scales:    Several Likert-type scales were used.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:   2016-09-27

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