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Determinants of Chicago Neighborhood Homicide Trends, 1980-2000 (ICPSR 34182) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The purpose of the study was to examine homicide trends in Chicago neighborhoods from 1980-2000 using HOMICIDES IN CHICAGO, 1965-1995 (ICPSR 6399), 1980-2000 Census data, and PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766). Drawing on the social disorganization and concentrated disadvantage literature, this study used growth-curve modeling and semi-parametric group-based trajectory modeling to: (1) assess neighborhood variation in homicide trends; (2) identify the particular types of homicide trajectory that Chicago neighborhoods follow; (3) assess whether structural characteristics of neighborhoods influence homicide trends and trajectories; and (4) determine the extent to which the influence of structural characteristics is mediated by neighborhood levels of collective efficacy. This project extended prior research by not only describing the homicide trends and trajectories of Chicago neighborhoods, but also identifying the neighborhood characteristics that directly and indirectly influence those trends.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

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Documentation:
Data:

Study Description

Citation

Stults, Brian J. Determinants of Chicago Neighborhood Homicide Trends, 1980-2000. ICPSR34182-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-03-22. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR34182.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2008-IJ-CX-0019)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   crime patterns, homicide, neighborhood change, neighborhood characteristics, neighborhood conditions

Smallest Geographic Unit:   Census tract

Geographic Coverage:   Chicago, Illinois, United States

Time Period:  

  • 1980--2000

Date of Collection:  

  • 1980--2000

Unit of Observation:   Census tract

Universe:   All census tracts in Chicago between 1980 and 2000.

Data Types:   program source code

Data Collection Notes:

The syntax files being distributed as part of this data collection can be used to create/generate variables and perform other data manipulation operations. The syntax to replicate the regression models and other analyses in the project's report (Stults, 2012; NCJ 239202) are not available as part of this data collection at this time.

In order to use the syntax files provided in this collection, users must first obtain the following studies available from the ICPSR Web site:

  • HOMICIDES IN CHICAGO, 1965-1995 (ICPSR 6399)
  • PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766)
  • CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY TAPE FILE 3A (ICPSR 8071)
  • CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1990 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY TAPE FILE 3A (ICPSR 9782)
  • CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 2000 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY FILE 3, NATIONAL (ICPSR 13396)

To protect respondent privacy, the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods data and the Homicides in Chicago data are restricted from general dissemination. To obtain these files, researchers must agree to the terms and conditions of a Restricted Data Use Agreement in accordance with existing ICPSR servicing policies. Researchers are encouraged to also consult the NACJD Restricted Data page for additional information about restricted data.

Methodology

Study Purpose:  

The general purpose of this project was to examine homicide trends in Chicago neighborhoods from 1980-2000. Specifically, this study sought to:

  • Assess neighborhood variation in homicide trends.
  • Identify the particular types of homicide trajectory that Chicago neighborhoods follow.
  • Assess whether structural characteristics of neighborhoods influence homicide trends and trajectories.
  • Determine the extent to which the influence of structural characteristics are mediated by neighborhood levels of collective efficacy.

Study Design:  

Data for this project was compiled from a variety of sources. To generate the homicide rate (per 100,000), homicide incident counts were obtained from HOMICIDES IN CHICAGO, 1965-1995 (ICPSR 6399). This dataset includes tract identifiers that allow for merging with other tract characteristics. The population sizes used in the denominator of the homicide rate were obtained from the decennial United States Census files for each decade from 1980-2000, and cubic spline interpolation was used to generate intercensal estimates. The homicide rate was calculated per 100,000 population. Due to a high degree of skewness in the homicide rate, the study analyses used the natural log of the homicide rate. One objective was to examine the relationships between homicide trends and various characteristics of neighborhood structure identified as relevant by the social disorganization perspective. These variables were drawn from the CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY TAPE FILE 3A (ICPSR 8071), CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1990 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY TAPE FILE 3A (ICPSR 9782), and CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 2000 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY FILE 3, NATIONAL (ICPSR 13396). In order to avoid the problems associated with high levels of multicollinearity among the regressors, several standardized mean indexes were created to represent key concepts identified in previous empirical and theoretical work. All predictors were incorporated as both static levels at the beginning of the time period, and as change scores for the period 1980 to 2000.

As an initial attempt at determining whether the effect of these structural characteristics on neighborhood crime trends are mediated by emergent properties of neighborhoods such as social cohesion, collective efficacy, and disorder, this study also incorporated data from the PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766). This survey contained responses from interviews conducted with 8,782 Chicago residents comprising a representative sample for each of the 343 neighborhood clusters of Chicago. The resulting dataset includes measures such as willingness to engage in informal social control, social cohesion and trust, and social and physical disorder. The community survey was conducted in 1994-1995, so the timing was not ideal for incorporation into a study of homicide trends from 1980-2000. Therefore, this portion of the study analyses was restricted to the years 1990-2000.

Sample:  

Census tracts were excluded from the study if they had a population of less than 100 persons in any given year because such small denominators result in considerable instability in homicide rates. An additional two tracts (1701 and 3204) were omitted because they have no households. After removing these census tracts, the sample size was 827 tracts.

This study incorporated data from the PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766). This survey contained responses from interviews conducted with 8,782 Chicago residents comprising a representative sample for each of the 343 neighborhood clusters of Chicago.

Weight:   none

Data Source:

HOMICIDES IN CHICAGO, 1965-1995 (ICPSR 6399)

PROJECT ON HUMAN DEVELOPMENT IN CHICAGO NEIGHBORHOODS: COMMUNITY SURVEY, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 2766)

CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1980 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY TAPE FILE 3A (ICPSR 8071)

CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 1990 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY TAPE FILE 3A (ICPSR 9782)

CENSUS OF POPULATION AND HOUSING, 2000 [UNITED STATES]: SUMMARY FILE 3, NATIONAL (ICPSR 13396)

Description of Variables:   Variables used in the study analyses include census tract, natural log of the homicide rate, neighborhood characteristics, several standardized mean indexes, and community-level measures. Neighborhood characteristics variables derived from Census data include population size, median household income, poverty rate, unemployment rate, divorce rate, percentage of female-headed households, residential mobility, homeownership rate, racial and Hispanic composition, immigrant composition, percentage of households speaking English, and population density. The standardized mean indexes variables are concentrated disadvantage, family disruption, social disorganization, and immigrant concentration. The study also utilized a neighborhood ties measure and a disorder index.

Response Rates:   Not applicable.

Presence of Common Scales:  

In order to avoid the problems associated with high levels of multicollinearity among the regressors, several standardized mean indexes were created. The concentrated disadvantage index is comprised of median household income, the percentage of persons with a high school diploma, the percentage of persons with a bachelor's degree, percentage of persons who are African American, and the percentage of persons unemployed. Family disruption is an index comprised of the percentage of persons age 15 and over who are divorced and the percentage of children who live with a single parent. Social disorganization is measured with an index comprised of the percentage of persons who lived in a different house five years earlier, the percentage of homes that are renter-occupied, the percentage of housing units that are vacant, and population density. Immigrant concentration is measured using an index comprised of the percentage foreign-born and the percentage Hispanic.

The measure of neighborhood ties is an mean index derived from five survey items asking how often people in the neighborhood do favors for one another, how often neighbors watch over each other's property, how often neighbors ask for advice, how often people in the neighborhood get together, and how often people in the neighborhood visit in each other's homes. The disorder index is comprised of items measuring perceived levels of both social and physical disorder, including questions asking how much of a problem is posed by litter, graffiti, vacant buildings, drinking in public, using or selling drugs in public, and groups of teenagers or adults hanging out and causing trouble.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

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