Weisburd, David, Cody Telep, Joshua Hinkle, and John Eck. Systematic Review of the Effects of Problem-Oriented Policing on Crime and Disorder, 1985-2006. ICPSR31701-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-08-22. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR31701.v1
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR31701.v1
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Smallest Geographic Unit:
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation:
All evaluations of problem-oriented policing published before 2006.
Data Collection Notes:
These data were collected as part of a systematic review for the Campbell Crime and Justice Coordinating Group (CCJG). Further information about the Campbell Collaboration and the Campbell Crime and Justice Group can be found at the
Campbell Collaboration Web site.
The purpose of this study was to synthesize the extant problem-oriented policing evaluation literature and assess the effects of problem-oriented policing on crime and disorder.
Several strategies were used to perform an exhaustive search for literature fitting the eligibility criteria.
- First, a keyword search was performed on an array of online abstract databases.
- Second, researchers reviewed the bibliographies of past reviews of problem-oriented policing.
- Third, researchers performed forward searches for works that have cited seminal problem-oriented policing studies.
- Fourth, researchers performed hand searches of leading journals in the field.
- Fifth, researchers searched the publications of several research and professional agencies.
- Sixth, after finishing the above searches, researchers emailed the list of studies meeting the eligibility criteria to leading policing scholars knowledgeable in the the area of problem-oriented policing to ensure relevant studies had not been missed.
Prior to analysis, the eligible studies were divided into two categories by study design Pre-Post Study Data (Part 1, n=52), and Quasi-Experiment Study Data (Part 2, n=19).
Eligible studies Part 1 (Pre-Post Study Data) and Part 2 (Quasi-Experimental Study Data), had to meet three criteria:
- The SARA (Scanning, Analysis, Response, Assessment) model was used for a problem-oriented policing intervention.
- At least one crime or disorder outcome was reported with sufficient data to generate an effect size.
- The study may deal with problem areas or problem people.
Eligible studies for Part 2 (Quasi-Experimental Study Data) also had to included a comparison group.
Mode of Data Collection:
The following databases were searched:
- Criminal Justice Periodical Index
- Criminal Justice Abstracts
- National Criminal Justice Reference Services (NCJRS) Abstracts
- Sociological Abstracts
- Social Science Abstracts (SocialSciAbs)
- Social Science Citation Index
- Dissertation Abstracts
- Government Publications Office Monthly Catalog (GPO Monthly)
- Police Executive Research Foru (PERF) database of problem-oriented policing examples (POPNet)
- C2 SPECTR (The Campbell Collaboration Social, Psychological, Educational and Criminological Trials Register
- Australian Criminology Database (CINCH)
- Centrex (Central Police Training and Development Authority) -- UK National Police Library
The following keywords were used to search the databases listed above (in all cases where "police" is listed researchers also used "policing" and "law enforcement"):
- "Problem-oriented policing"
- Police AND "problem solving"
- SARA model
- Police AND SARA
- Police AND scanning
- Police AND analysis
- Police AND "problem identification"
- Police AND identify AND problem
- Police AND "situational crime prevention"
The publications of the following groups were searched:
- Center for Problem-Oriented Policing (Tiley Award and Herman Goldstein Award submissions, Problem-Specific Guides for Police)
- Institute for Law and Justice
- Community Policing Consortium (electronic library)
- Vera Institute for Justice (policing publications)
- Rand Corporation (public safety publications)
- Police Foundation
The following agencies' publications were searched and the agencies were contacted if necessary:
- Home Office (United Kingdom)
- Australian Institute of Criminology
- Swedish Police Service
- Norwegian Ministry of Justice and the Police
- Royal Canadian Mounted Police
- Finnish Police (Polsi)
- Danish National Police (Politi)
- The Netherlands Police (Politie)
- New Zealand Police
The bibliographies of the following sources on problem-oriented policing were reviewed:
- Braga (2002). Problem-oriented policing and crime prevention.
- National Research Council (2004). Fairness and effectiveness in policing: The evidence.
- Mazerolle and Ransley (2005). Third party policing.
- Mazerolle, Soole, and Rombouts (2005). Drug law enforcement: The evidence.
- Scott (2000). Problem-oriented policing: Reflections on the first 20 years.
Description of Variables:
Both Part 1 (Pre-Post Study Data) and Part 2 (Quasi-Experimental Study Data) include variables in the following categories:
- Reference information (title, authors, publication, etc.)
- Nature and description of selection site, problems, etc.
- Nature and description of selection of comparison group or period
- Unit of analysis
- Sample size
- Methodological type
- Description of the POP (problem-oriented policing) intervention
- Dosage intensity and type
- Implementation difficulties
- Statistical test(s) used
- Reports of statistical significance (if any)
- Effect size/power (if any)
- Conclusions drawn by the authors
Presence of Common Scales:
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Standardized missing values.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.