United States Department of Health and Human Services. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. Office of Applied Studies. Drug Abuse Warning Network (DAWN), 1997: [United States]. ICPSR02834-v2. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-03-04. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02834.v2
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02834.v2
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Date of Collection:
Patients treated during 1997 in the emergency department
of nonfederal, short-stay general hospitals that had a 24-hour
emergency department. Eligible respondents were those patients who met
the following criteria: (1) they were aged 6 years or older, (2) their
presenting problem(s) was/were induced by or related to drug use,
regardless of when the drug ingestion occurred, (3) the case involved
the nonmedical use of a legal drug or any use of an illegal drug, (4)
the patient's reason for taking the substance(s) included one of the
following: (a) dependence, (b) suicide attempt or gesture, or (c)
administrative records data,
Data Collection Notes:
Because data are abstracted from medical records
completed by hospital staff who treat the patients, the accuracy of
these reports depends on their careful recording of these conditions.
It is also important to recognize that DAWN does not provide a
complete picture of problems associated with drug use, but rather
focuses on the impact that these problems have on hospital emergency
departments in the United States. If a person is admitted to another
part of the hospital for treatment, or treated in a physician's office
or at a drug treatment center, the episode would not be included in
To protect the privacy of respondents, all variables that
could be used to identify individuals have been encrypted or collapsed
in the public use file. These modifications should not affect analytic
uses of the public use file.
In May 1995, following a
comprehensive review, changes were implemented in the computer
programs that produce the DAWN estimates. The 1997 estimates are based
on these corrected programs. Most of the errors were due to a
miscalculation of the weights for hospitals that had undergone
organizational changes after they were selected into the
sample. Because the impact of these changes on the preliminary 1995
estimates was found to be small, 1994 estimates were not revised. The
new DAWN estimation system was fully implemented for the 1995 year.
Estimates for 1995 and subsequent years reflect those changes.
data were collected and cleaned by Johnson, Bassin, and Shaw,
Inc. Westat, Inc. created the weights and analytic files, and the
National Opinion Research Center (NORC) created the public use file
For more information, visit the DAWN Web site.
More than 500 EDs that were part of a scientifically-
selected sample of general hospitals in the country provided data for
DAWN. The DAWN sample is constructed to produce estimates of substance
abuse visits to emergency departments across the nation and to 21
oversampled metropolitan areas. The sample design of DAWN does not
permit state-level estimates. Hospitals in the frame were stratified
according to size, with hospitals reporting 80,000 or more annual
emergency department visits assigned to a single stratum and selected
with certainty. Additional strata were defined according to whether
the hospital had an organized outpatient department or a
chemical/alcohol inpatient unit. The 21 oversampled metropolitan areas
include: Atlanta, GA, Baltimore, MD, Boston, MA, Buffalo, NY, Chicago,
IL, Dallas, TX, Denver, CO, Detroit, MI, Los Angeles, CA, Miami, FL,
Minneapolis, MN, New Orleans, LA, New York, NY, Newark, NJ,
Philadelphia, PA, Phoenix, AZ, San Diego, CA, San Francisco, CA,
Seattle, WA, St. Louis, MO, and Washington, DC.
Mode of Data Collection:
hospital medical records
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Performed consistency checks.
Created online analysis version with question text.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Restrictions: Users are reminded by the Substance Abuse and Mental
Health Services Administration that these data are to be used solely
for statistical analysis and reporting of aggregated information, and
not for the investigation of specific individuals or organizations.