Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods: Community Survey, 1994-1995. ICPSR02766-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2007-10-29. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02766.v3
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR02766.v3
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Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation:
All adult residents of Chicago in 1994.
Data Collection Notes:
At present, only a restricted version of the data is
available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data
is slated to be available in the near future.
The Project on Human Development in Chicago
Neighborhoods is an interdisciplinary study aimed at deepening
society's understanding of the causes and pathways of juvenile
delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. In
particular, it is a study of children's social and psychological
development from birth to young adulthood in urban neighborhoods. The
project sought to answer the following questions: (1) Why does one
community have a high rate of crime, violence, and substance abuse,
while a similar community nearby is relatively stable? (2) What
factors enable some individuals to live successful, productive lives,
even in high-risk neighborhoods? (3) Why does one young person
experiment only briefly with delinquency, while another goes on to a
criminal career? The survey gathered information from adult residents
of Chicago on their perceptions of the neighborhoods in which they
live. The researchers sought to use these data to create reliable and
valid measures of neighborhood social context. Researchers were
interested in measuring how neighborhood social organization related
to crime, violence, and victimization. They also aimed to examine how
neighborhood social organization was related to social disorder,
cynicism regarding the legal system, dissatisfaction with the police,
and tolerance of deviance.
The Project on Human Development in Chicago
Neighborhoods was designed to administer a series of cross-sectional
community studies in the same area and at the same time as a
comprehensive longitudinal study on risk factors and manifestations of
antisocial behavior and substance abuse. The overarching goal was to
complete five or more annual waves of data collection over an
eight-year period for multiple age groups, employing an accelerated
longitudinal design, while simultaneously studying organizational
changes in the urban context in which these young people were growing
up. This data collection contains the first cross-sectional survey
from this project. The survey questionnaire was a multidimensional
assessment by Chicago residents of the structural conditions and
organization of their neighborhoods in 1994. Neighborhoods were
operationally defined as 343 clusters of census tracts, referred to as
"neighborhood clusters." Data collection consisted of a household
interview of residents aged 18 and older to assess key neighborhood
dimensions, including the dynamic structure of the local community,
organizational and political structure, cultural values, informal
social control, formal social control, and social cohesion. The
community survey instrument included measures of perceived crime and
violence in the community, ratings of social order (gang activity,
graffiti, unruly teens), normative beliefs about violence, and
crime-specific indicators of victimization, available resources,
norms, and social organization.
Stratified random sampling.
Mode of Data Collection:
Description of Variables:
In Part 1, city-level variables measure the best
and worst aspects of living in Chicago for the interviewed residents.
Variables relating to neighborhood structure include how residents
define their neighborhoods, how long they have lived in a particular
neighborhood, characteristics of their neighborhood, including types
of social service agencies available, and if they would consider
moving to a different neighborhood and why. Other community variables
measure the relationships among neighbors, including how many
neighbors a respondent would recognize, how often neighbors
socialized, and how often neighbors participated in other activities
together. Variables that capture neighborhood social order include
respondents' perceptions of neighborhood problems such as litter,
graffiti, drinking, drugs, and excessive use of force by
police. Respondents were also asked about their normative beliefs
regarding violence, money, and various children's behaviors.
Victimization variables cover how often the respondent was the victim
of a fight with a weapon, a violent argument, a gang fight, sexual
assault, robbery, theft, or vandalism. Other variables measure fear of
crime and attitudes toward the police. Demographic variables include
age, gender, education, living arrangement, national origin, and
employment status. Part 2 contains Part 1 data aggregated to the
neighborhood cluster (NC) level.
Presence of Common Scales:
Several Likert-type scales were used.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.