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Gender, Mental Illness, and Crime in the United States, 2004 (ICPSR 27521) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The purpose of the study was to examine the gendered effects of depression, drug use, and treatment on crime and the effects of interaction with the criminal justice system on subsequent depression and drug use. The data for the study are from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373]. In addition to the 2004 NSDUH data, the study utilized new variables that were derived from the original dataset by the principal investigator, namely recoded variables, interaction variables, and computed indices. Information was provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 years and older. Respondents also provided detailed information regarding criminal activity, depression, and other factors. A total of 55,602 respondents participated in the study. The dataset contains a total of 3,011 variables. The first 2,690 variables are drawn from the 2004 NSDUH dataset and the remaining 321 variables were created by the principal investigator. Variables created by the principal investigator are manipulations of the first 2,690 variables. Specifically, these variables include depression indices, drug dependence indicators, interactions with gender and other demographic variables, and dichotomous recoded variables relating to types of drug abuse and criminal behavior.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

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Study Description

Citation

Thompson, Melissa. Gender, Mental Illness, and Crime in the United States, 2004. ICPSR27521-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2011-02-10. doi:10.3886/ICPSR27521.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2007-IJ-CX-0004)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   addiction, alcohol, alcohol abuse, alcohol consumption, amphetamines, barbiturates, cocaine, controlled drugs, crack cocaine, crime, demographic characteristics, depression (psychology), drinking behavior, drug abuse, drug treatment, drug use, drugs, gender, hallucinogens, heroin, households, income, inhalants, marijuana, mental disorders, mental health, mental health services, methamphetamine, prescription drugs, sedatives, smoking, stimulants, substance abuse, substance abuse treatment, tobacco use, tranquilizers, youths

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 2004

Date of Collection:  

  • 2004

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   The civilian, noninstitutionalized population of the United States aged 12 years and older, including residents of noninstitutional group quarters such as college dormitories, group homes, shelters, rooming houses, and civilians dwelling on military installations.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Users should refer to the final report listed in the related literature section of this study as well as the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373] for additional information on the study design and methodology, sampling, and weighting.

The final report related to this study is available from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS) at https://www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID=245978

Methodology

Study Purpose:   The purpose of the study was to examine the gendered effects of depression, drug use, and treatment on crime and the effects of interaction with the criminal justice system on subsequent depression and drug use.

Study Design:   The data for the study are from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373]. In addition to the 2004 NSDUH data, the study utilized new variables that were derived from the original dataset by the principal investigator, namely recoded variables, interaction variables, and computed indices. The 2004 NSDUH measured the prevalence and correlates of drug use in the United States. NSDUH surveys were designed to provide quarterly, as well as annual, estimates. Information was provided on the use of illicit drugs, alcohol, and tobacco among members of United States households aged 12 years and older. Respondents also provided detailed information regarding criminal activity, depression, and other factors. Data contain information from a total of 55,602 respondents.

Sample:   The achieved sample gathered from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373] is of 67,760 persons. The public use file contains 55,602 records due to a subsampling step used in the disclosure protection procedures. The sample is stratified on multiple levels, beginning with states. Eight states are considered large sample states and contribute approximately 3,600 respondents per state. The remaining states are sampled to yield 900 respondents per state. In advance of the survey period, specially trained listers visited each area segment and listed all addresses for housing units and eligible group quarters units in a prescribed order. Systematic sampling was used to select the allocated sample of addresses from each segment. Each respondent who completed a full interview was given a $30 cash payment. Persons were selected from the address roster using a handheld computer. To improve the precision of estimates, the sample allocation process targeted five age groups: 12-17 years, 18-25 years, 26-34 years, 35-49 years, and 50 years and older. The size measures used in selecting the area segments were coordinated with the dwelling unit and person selection process so that a nearly self-weighting sample could be achieved in each of the five age groups. The sample design included approximately equal numbers of persons in the 12-17 years, 18-25 years, and 26 years and older age groups. Minimum item response requirements were defined for cases to be retained for weighting and further analysis (i.e., "usable" cases). These requirements, as well as full sampling methodology, are detailed in the 2004 NSDUH [ICPSR 4373] codebook.

Weight:   The "basic sampling weights" are equal to the inverse of the probabilities of selection of sample respondents. To obtain "final NSDUH weights," the basic weights were adjusted to take into account dwelling unit-level and individual-level nonresponse and then further adjusted to ensure consistency with intercensal population projections from the United States Bureau of the Census. A split-sample design for respondents aged 18 years or older was implemented. Thus, two additional person-level analysis weights other than ANALWT_C were created. They are SPDWT_C and DEPWT_C. These weights were created for specific types of person-level analyses. Depending on the section(s) of the 2004 survey from which the variable(s) originated, one of the three sampling weights must be selected and applied. Please refer to the ICPSR Processor Notes in the 2004 NSDUH [ICPSR 4373] codebook for details on determining the appropriate weight to use when analyzing a specific variable or combination of variables.

Mode of Data Collection:   audio computer-assisted self interview (ACASI), computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

Data Source:

NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373]

Description of Variables:   The dataset contains a total of 3,011 variables. The first 2,690 variables are drawn from the NATIONAL HOUSEHOLD SURVEY ON DRUG USE AND HEALTH (NSDUH), 2004 [ICPSR 4373] and the remaining 321 variables were created by the principal investigator. Questions from the 2004 NSDUH included age at first use as well as lifetime, annual, and past-month usage of several drug classes. The survey covered substance abuse treatment history and perceived need for treatment, and included questions from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM) of Mental Disorders that allow diagnostic criteria to be applied. The survey included questions concerning treatment for both substance abuse and mental health related disorders. Respondents were also asked about illegal activities and arrest record, problems resulting from the use of drugs, and needle-sharing. Questions introduced in previous administrations of the NSDUH study were retained in the 2004 survey, including questions asked only of respondents aged 12 to 17 years. These "youth experiences" items covered a variety of topics, such as neighborhood environment, illegal activities, drug use by friends, social support, extracurricular activities, exposure to substance abuse prevention and education programs, and perceived adult attitudes toward drug use and activities such as school work. Several measures also focused on prevention-related themes. Also retained were questions on mental health and access to care, perceived risk of using drugs, perceived availability of drugs, driving and personal behavior, and cigar smoking. Demographic variables and background information were also included, such as gender, race, age, ethnicity, marital status, educational level, job status, veteran status, and current household composition. Variables created by the principal investigator are manipulations of the first 2,690 variables. Specifically, these variables include depression indices, drug dependence indicators, interactions with gender and other demographic variables, and dichotomous recoded variables relating to types of drug abuse and criminal behavior.

Response Rates:   The study yielded a weighted screening response rate of 91 percent and a weighted interview response rate for the Computer Assisted Interview (CAI) of 77 percent.

Presence of Common Scales:   The 2004 NSDUH data included Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) oriented scales. The principal investigator also created scales for substance dependence as well as depression and substance dependence interaction.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

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