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Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) Multi-site Impact Evaluation, 2004-2011 [United States] (ICPSR 27101)

Principal Investigator(s): Lattimore, Pamela K., RTI International; Visher, Christy A., University of Delaware. Urban Institute

Summary:

The Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) funded agencies to develop programs to improve criminal justice, employment, education, health, and housing outcomes for released prisoners. SVORI was a goal-oriented initiative that specified outcomes that should be achieved by programs that were developed locally. The original Multi-site Evaluation of SVORI funded under NIJ grant 2004-RE-CX-0002 included a quasi-experimental impact evaluation to determine the effectiveness of programming. Specifically, the purpose of the impact evaluation was to determine whether individuals who participated in enhanced reentry programming, as measured by their enrollment in SVORI programs, had improved post-release outcomes than comparable individuals who did not participate in SVORI programming. Impact evaluation data collection for both SVORI and non-SVORI participants consisted of four waves of in-person, computer-assisted interviews and oral swab drug tests conducted in conjunction with two of the follow-up interviews. The research team collected data on a total of 2,391 individuals including 1,697 adult males (Part 1), 357 adult females (Part 2), and 337 juvenile males (Part 3). As part of the impact evaluation, experienced RTI field interviewers conducted pre-release interviews with offenders approximately 30 days before release from prison and a series of follow-up interviews at 3, 9, and 15 months post-release. These data provided information on criminal history and recidivism occurring by December 31, 2007. The Adult Males Data (Part 1), Adult Females Data (Part 2), and the Juvenile Males Data (Part 3) each contain the same 5,566 variables from the 3 waves of offender interviews, 10 drug test lab results variables, and 3 weight variables. (Note: Some interview questions were only asked of adults, and other questions were only asked of juveniles.) Offender interview variables include demographics, housing, employment, education, military experience, family background, peer relationships, program operations and services, physical and mental health, substance abuse, crime and delinquency, and attitudes toward those topics.

Under NIJ Grant 2009-IJ-CX-0010, the original Multi-site Evaluation of SVORI data were updated in order to examine the questions of, "What works, for whom, and for how long?" This included follow-up interview questions of those previously (and currently still) incarcerated. New variables derived from data collected under the original SVORI impact evaluation between 2004 and 2007 were also added to Part 3. Part one included an additional 100 variables, part two an additional 102 variables and part 3 an additional 99 variables.

Access Notes

  • One or more files in this data collection have special restrictions ; consult the restrictions note to learn more. You can apply online for access to the restricted-use data. A login is required to apply.

    Access to these data is restricted. There are two versions of restricted data available each having its own application procedure: (1) general restricted data and (2) Enclave data. Certain identifying information in the general restricted data version may have been masked or edited to protect respondent privacy. For more information about the differences between the general restricted data and the Enclave data available for this study, please refer to the codebook notes section of the PDF codebooks.

    Users interested in obtaining access to the general restricted data must apply online and complete a Restricted Data Use Agreement, specify the reasons for the request, and obtain IRB approval or notice of exemption for their research.

    The Enclave data may only be accessed at the ICPSR Data Enclave in Ann Arbor, MI. Users wishing to view these data must complete an Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave (available for download as part of the documentation for this study), and receive permission to analyze the files before traveling to Ann Arbor. More general information about the Enclave may be found at ICPSR's Enclave Data Web site.

    Any public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Adult Males Data
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.
DS2:  Adult Females Data
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.
DS3:  Juvenile Males Data
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.

Study Description

Citation

Lattimore, Pamela K., and Christy A. Visher. Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) Multi-site Impact Evaluation, 2004-2011 [United States]. ICPSR27101-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2013-11-07. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR27101.v1

Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR27101.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2004-RE-CX-0002, 2009-IJ-CX-0010)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    evaluation, inmate release plans, offenders, outcome evaluation, postrelease programs, prisoner reentry, program evaluation, programs, recidivism, recidivists, violence, violent crime

Smallest Geographic Unit:    state

Geographic Coverage:    Colorado, Florida, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Maine, Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, United States, Washington

Time Period:   

  • 2004--2011

Date of Collection:   

  • 2004--2007 (Original Multi-site Evaluation of SVORI)
  • 2010-11--2011-05 (SVORI Update)

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    Adult male offenders who received Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) programming or were selected as comparison subjects in 12 states between July 2004 and November 2005 (Part 1). Adult female offenders who received Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) programming or were selected as comparison subjects in 11 states between July 2004 and November 2005 (Part 2). Juvenile male offenders who received Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) programming or were selected as comparison subjects in 4 states between July 2004 and November 2005 (Part 3).

Data Type(s):    clinical data, experimental data, survey data

Data Collection Notes:

Because of the sensitive nature of the data, some data in this collection can only be accessed on-site at ICPSR's secure data enclave in Ann Arbor, Michigan. A version of the SVORI data collection is also available through restricted data access procedures. These procedures require a NACJD Restricted Data Use Agreement and IRB approval from the researcher's institution, but do not require the researcher to travel to Ann Arbor to access the data. There is an enclave version and a restricted version for each of the four data parts. The differences between the enclave data and the restricted data are described in the PDF codebooks, specifically the codebook notes sections and the appendices, and users should refer to these for details about the two versions, and the masking process. The variables available in the enclave data that are masked in the restricted data are: character variables containing open-ended responses and state geographic variables in Part 2 and Part 3 (the state geographic variable in Part 1 is available in the restricted data).

Users should be aware that the datasets can be linked using the ID "CASE ID" variable. The datasets cannot be linked using the RECORDID variable.

Users should refer to the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) final reports and other resources listed in the Related Literature section of this data collection for detailed information regarding the evaluation activities associated with the SVORI Multi-site Evaluation.

There were some variations between the questions that were asked to adult and juvenile respondents in the four waves of offender interviews in the original data collection. Some questions were only asked of adults, and other questions were only asked of juveniles. Accordingly, while the Adult Males Data (Part 1), Adult Females Data (Part 2), and Juvenile Males Data (Part 3) each contain the same 5,566 variables collected as part of the original Multi-site Evaluation of SVORI, the variables asked only of the juveniles will have all missing values in the adult datasets, and the variables asked only of adults will have all missing values in the juvenile datasets. The Item Catalog for SVORI Offender Interviews, which is included in the Data Documentation file for this data collection, indicates which variables were asked only of adults or juveniles.

Part 1, Part 2, and Part 3 include 5,566 variables collected under the original Multi-site Evaluation of SVORI, and variables from the SVORI Update. All variables from the update are denoted by a "UP_" prepended to the variable names. Some of the SVORI Update variables appear to be duplicates of the original variables. ICPSR staff added the SVORI Update variables to the original SVORI data and did not examine the similarities and differences between the original and SVORI Update variables.

Under NIJ Grant 2009-IJ-CX-0010, all data parts were augmented with additional years of data. New variables derived from the data collected under the original SVORI impact evaluation between 2004 and 2007 were also added to Part 3.

Data from the FBI's NCIC database were collected but are not available as part of this collection.

Methodology

Study Purpose:    The Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) funded agencies to develop programs to improve criminal justice, employment, education, health, and housing outcomes for released prisoners. SVORI was a goal-oriented initiative that specified outcomes that should be achieved by programs that were developed locally. The purpose of the SVORI multi-site evaluation was to determine whether the selected programs accomplished the overall goal of the Reentry Initiative -- increasing public safety by reducing recidivism among the populations served by the program -- and determine the relative costs and benefits of the program. The SVORI multi-site evaluation included an impact evaluation to determine the effectiveness of programming. Specifically, the purpose of the impact evaluation was to determine whether individuals who participated in enhanced reentry programming, as measured by their enrollment in SVORI programs, had improved post-release outcomes than comparable individuals who did not participate in SVORI programming.

Study Design:   

Under NIJ Grant 2004-RE-CX-0002, the principal investigators conducted an impact evaluation of SVORI. Impact evaluation data collection for both SVORI and non-SVORI participants consisted of four waves of in-person, computer-assisted interviews and oral swab drug tests conducted in conjunction with follow-up interviews. The research team collected data on a total of 2,391 individuals including 1,697 adult males (Part 1), 357 adult females (Part 2), and 337 juvenile males (Part 3).

As part of the impact evaluation, experienced RTI field interviewers conducted pre-release interviews with offenders approximately 30 days before release from prison and a series of follow-up interviews at 3, 9, and 15 months post-release. All interviews were conducted in private settings using computer-assisted personal interviewing. Pre-release interviews were conducted from July 2004 through November 2005 in more than 150 prisons and juvenile detention facilities. The pre-release interviews obtained data on the respondents' characteristics and pre-prison experiences, as well as incarceration experiences and services received since admission to prison. These interviews also obtained data on the respondents' post-release plans and expectations about reentry to the community. Post-release interviews were conducted from December 2004 through May 2007. Interviews were conducted in the community, and in jails or prisons for those who were re-incarcerated. The post-release interviews were similar in content across waves and obtained data on reentry experiences, housing, employment, family and community integration, substance abuse, physical and mental health, supervision and criminal history, service needs, and service receipt. The interview instruments were developed through an extensive process involving substantive domain experts and the use of existing, validated measures and scales. Oral swab drug tests were conducted during the 3- and 15-month interviews for respondents who were interviewed in a community setting.

Under NIJ Grant 2009-IJ-CX-0010, follow up interview data was added for males, females, and juveniles from 11 of the 12 original SVORI sites.

Sample:   

In developing criteria for site selection for the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) impact evaluation, the principal investigators focused on identifying factors that would provide the best assurance that a program would be evaluable. Six criteria were identified to guide site selection:

  1. Program had clearly defined elements and goals.
  2. Program was implemented (or was likely to be implemented).
  3. Program target population was accessible and of sufficient size.
  4. Appropriate comparison population was available and accessible for inclusion in the study.
  5. Administrative data were of good quality and available for the evaluation.
  6. Program was amenable to and able to participate in the evaluation.

The strategy implemented to identify the impact programs was based on the following successive data collection activities:

  1. Review of SVORI grantee proposals and work plans and follow-up. Telephone interviews with program directors to obtain information not gleaned from the review, clarifications and updates on the programs' status.
  2. Visits to the sites of a selected subset of programs.
  3. Review of all information to develop a list of recommended programs for inclusion in the impact evaluation that was submitted to NIJ for approval.

Based upon these criteria and procedures, a total of 16 out of all 89 SVORI programs were included in the impact evaluation, comprising 12 adult programs and 4 juvenile programs located in 14 states (adult only unless otherwise specified): Colorado (juveniles only), Florida (juveniles only), Indiana, Iowa, Kansas (adults and juveniles), Maine, Maryland, Missouri, Nevada, Ohio, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, South Carolina (adults and juveniles), and Washington. A site-specific research design was developed for each impact site. In two sites (Iowa and Ohio), the programs randomly assigned individuals to their SVORI programs. In the remaining sites, quasi-experimental comparison groups were developed by identifying the criteria that local site staff used to identify individuals eligible for enrollment in their SVORI program (including such factors as age, criminal history, risk level, post-release supervision, transfer to pre-release facilities, and county of release) and replicating the selection procedures on a different population.

From these 16 programs, a total of 4,354 cases were fielded for inclusion in SVORI impact evaluation study. A total of 1,963 cases were dropped from the sample including 718 cases that were released before interviews could be scheduled, 635 cases that were ineligible for the evaluation, 370 refusals, 192 cases were dropped because the respondents were not released while the first post-release interview was being conducted, and 48 other non-interviews. Thus, the final sample of evaluation-eligible respondents for the impact evaluation was comprised of 2,391 individuals -- 1,697 adult males (Part 1), 357 adult females (Part 2), and 337 juvenile males (Part 3). Specifically, the final sample included 863 SVORI and 834 non-SVORI adult males, 153 SVORI and 204 non-SVORI adult females, and 152 SVORI and 185 non-SVORI juvenile males.

Time Method:    Longitudinal: Cohort/ Event-based

Weight:    Part 1-Part 3 contain the following three weight variables: individual probability, population average treatment effects (PATE) weight, and average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) weight. The updated data contain an additional variable UP_PSVORI_I_WT1, labeled as PATE weight.

Mode of Data Collection:    computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI)

Data Source:

Four waves of in-person, computer-assisted interviews with SVORI program participants and comparison subjects

Laboratory results data from the oral swab drug tests that were conducted during the 3- and 15-month interviews for respondents who were interviewed in a community setting

Description of Variables:   

The Adult Males Data (Part 1), Adult Females Data (Part 2), and the Juvenile Males Data (Part 3) each contain the same 5,566 variables from the original Multi-site Evaluation of SVORI including variables from the 4 waves of offender interviews, 10 drug test lab results variables and 3 weight variables. (Note: Some interview questions were only asked of adults, and other questions were only asked of juveniles.) Offender interview variables include demographics, housing, employment, education, military experience, family background, peer relationships, program operations and services, physical and mental health, substance abuse, crime and delinquency, and attitudes.

From the offender interviews, data include:

  • Demographic variables: age, facility type, gender, race, acculturation, and duration of incarceration.
  • Housing variables: location, type of housing, duration of housing, housing expectation, composition of household, contribution to housing costs, owner/tenant status, housing stability, barriers to housing, living with criminally-/drug-involved people, and neighborhood quality.
  • Employment variables: ever had job, sources of support/employment status, job stability/reasons for not working, unemployment insurance, most recent job information, lifetime employment duration/termination, expectation to return to previous job, barriers to employment, job satisfaction, and job stress.
  • Education variables: educational attainment, school attendance/stability, and school suspension/expulsion.
  • Military experience variables: ever served, type of discharge, and currently serving.
  • Family background variables: marital/partner status, parental status, children/primary care responsibilities, child support, family affiliation, family criminal history, parent/guardian information, family emotional support, family instrumental support, in-prison contact, parental relationship, victimization, perpetration of violence, quality of intimate partnership, child custody and visitation, and relationship with children.
  • Peer relationships variables: peer criminal behavior and peer instrumental support.
  • Program operations and services variables: assessment and case management, service need, release planning, services received (child support/child care, juvenile services, identification/life skills/attitudes, parenting/domestic violence/mentoring/anger management, education/transportation/housing/accessing resources, employment services), medical/dental care, mental health care, substance abuse treatment, most/least helpful services, work release, and experiences in the first 24 hours after release.
  • Physical and mental health variables: physical health status, physical health-related limitations, physical health diagnoses and medications, physical health hospitalizations, vision/hearing/dental health, mental health status, mental health-related limitations, mental health symptoms, PTSD symptoms, mental health treatment, mental health medications, and mental health hospitalizations.
  • Substance abuse variables: use of alcohol, use of sedatives, use of tranquilizers, use of stimulants, use of pain relievers or opiates, use of methadone, use of anabolic steroids, use of marijuana, use of hallucinogens, use of cocaine, use of amphetamines, and use of inhalants.
  • Crime and delinquency variables: criminal history, gang membership, court appearances, supervision status and officer contacts, supervision conditions and violations, sanctions and rewards, attitudes toward parole officer, perceptions of factors related to recidivism, and perceptions of factors related to desistance.
  • Attitude variables: self-efficacy, locus of control, readiness for change, spirituality, legal cynicism, substance abuse treatment motivation, and civic action.

The 10 drug test lab results variables include results for amphetamines, cannabinoids, cocaine, opiates, and phencyclidine for the oral swab drug tests that were conducted during the 3-month (Wave 2) and 15-month (Wave 4) interviews.

Weight variables include individual probability, population average treatment effects (PATE) weight, and average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) weight.

Additional variables, on the same topics as the original data collection, were added to each part of the study via follow-up interviews resulting in a final variable count of 5,751 for each part.

Response Rates:   

RESPONSE RATES

Of the 4,354 cases fielded for inclusion in the original Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI) impact evaluation study, a total of 2,391 respondents completed the Wave 1 (30 days pre-release) interviews, yielding a response rate of 54.9 percent, which is based on the total number of cases fielded, including both eligible and ineligible cases.

A total of 1,464 respondents completed the Wave 2 (3-month post-release) interviews, yielding a response rate of 61.2 percent.

A total of 1,527 respondents completed the Wave 3 (9-month post-release) interviews, yielding a response rate of 63.9 percent.

A total of 1,637 respondents completed the Wave 4 (15-month post-release) interviews, yielding a response rate of 68.5 percent.

Presence of Common Scales:    The SF-12 Health Survey was used to measure respondents' physical and mental functioning, and the SA-45 (Global Severity Index and Brief Symptom Inventory) and the Positive Symptom Total index were used to measure respondents' mental health. The SA-45 includes subscales indicating symptoms of specific psychopathologies including anxiety, depression, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive disorder, paranoid ideation, phobic anxiety, psychoticism, and somatization. Several Likert-type scales were also used.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created variable labels and/or value labels.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:   2011-05-04

Version History:

  • 2017-02-09 Data from the FBI's NCIC database were removed from the study.
  • 2014-01-09 User Guide was updated. Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave was added to the collection.
  • 2013-11-07 With funding from the National Institute of Justice under NIJ Grant 2009-IJ-CX-0010, the original SVORI data collection was updated to include new administrative records regarding arrests, incarcerations, and mortality collected in 2010 and 2011. Specifically, 452 variables were added to the Adult Males Data (Part 1), 347 variables were added to the Adult Females Data (Part 2), and 242 variables were added to the Juvenile Males Data (Part 3). No variables were added to the National Crime Informaction Center (NCIC) Arrest Records Data (Part 4).
  • 2011-05-05 Enclave data were released

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