health care services,
mental health services,
substance abuse treatment,
Smallest Geographic Unit:
District of Columbia,
New York (state),
- 2006-10-25 (85.5 percent of responses were based on this reference date)
- 2007-03-02--2007-11-30 (14.5 percent of responses were based on an alternative reference date)
Date of Collection:
Unit of Observation:
Juvenile residential facilities in the United States holding at least one juvenile for an offense on the census reference date in 2006.
Data Collection Notes:
Additional information about the JRFC and other national juvenile corrections data collections sponsored by OJJDP is available from the National Juvenile Corrections Data Resource Guide.
Individual years of data from the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP) and Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC), a compliment to the CJRP data, are available through enclave access. Users interested in utilizing the enclave data must complete an Application for Use of the ICPSR Data Enclave. Additional data in the CJRP Series, JRFC Series, and the Matched CJRP/JRFC Series will be made available in March 2012 through the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data's Restricted Survey Documentation and Analysis (RSDA) system. Users interested in accessing these data through NACJD's RSDA system must complete a RSDA Data Use Agreement.
The purpose of the Juvenile Residential Facility Census (JRFC) is to provide a detailed understanding of the facilities holding juveniles in custody across the United States. The JRFC offers information about the environments in which youth under 21 are held as part of a multilayered effort by the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) to describe both the youth placed in residential facilities and the environments of these facilities. The JRFC is a companion effort to the Census of Juveniles in Residential Placement (CJRP), which collects information from the same facilities that meet JRFC inclusion criteria. The JRFC was administered for the first time in 2000 by the United States Bureau of the Census for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP).
The JRFC is designed to provide facility-level information for all facilities meeting certain inclusion criteria on the census reference date (see "Sampling" below). The questionnaire collects information about general facility characteristics; treatment policies, procedures, and services; events and incidents in the past 30 dates; deaths in the past year; and spaces or services shared with other facilities (see "Description of Variables" below).
The JRFC is administered by the U.S. Bureau of the Census for the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention. Facility representatives receive mail questionnaires shortly before the survey reference date. A small number of facilities meeting census inclusion criteria decline to complete sections of the survey or fail to return the census forms after repeated notification and phone contact from Census Bureau personnel; these facilities are designated non-respondents. Other facilities may be unable to provide all the information necessary to complete the survey. In cases where facilities are unable or unwilling to complete all survey items, the Census Bureau uses complete records to impute missing data.
The inclusion criteria for facilities in the census were: the facility must house persons under the age of 21 who were charged with or adjudicated for an offense, and were present in the facility on the reference date because of that offense. JRFC did not capture data on adult prisons or jails, nor did it include facilities that are used exclusively for mental health or substance abuse treatment or for dependent children.
Mode of Data Collection:
United States Bureau of the Census questionnaires
Description of Variables:
The 2006 JRFC (n=3,034; 661 variables) collects information on various aspects of residential facilities.
Section 1 of the survey form collects general facility information, including:
- location (state),
- facility population disaggregated by age and offense status (total, under 21, 21 or older, assigned a bed because of an offense, assigned a bed for other reasons),
- physical layout (e.g. presence of separate buildings or separate living/sleeping units),
- facility type (e.g. detention center, group home/halfway house, runaway and homeless shelter),
- treatment provided (e.g. mental health treatment, substance abuse treatment),
- owner and operator sector (private non-profit, for-profit, government) and, for government-owned or -operated facilities, level (tribal, federal, state, county, municipal),
- security features (e.g. locked internal or external doors or gates), and
- sleeping arrangements (occupants per sleeping room, number of standard and makeshift beds).
Section 2 describes physical health policies, procedures, and services provided inside or outside the facility.
Section 3 describes mental health policies, procedures, and services provided inside or outside the facility.
Section 4 describes education policies, procedures, and services.
Section 5 describes substances abuse policies, procedures, and services.
Section 6 of the survey form relates to events in the 30 days prior to the census reference date, including unauthorized departures, transportation to an emergency room, and young persons placed in physical restraints or in isolation.
Section 7 of the survey form gathers information about any deaths in the past year.
Section 8 of the survey form describes space shared with other facilities.
Using the number of in-scope facilities as a base (i.e., able to hold juveniles overnight and held juveniles on the reference date), the JRFC facility response rate was 80 percent in 2006.
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Created variable labels and/or value labels.
Standardized missing values.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.