Espy, M. Watt;
Allen, Howard, Southern Illinois University - Carbondale;
Clubb, Jerome M., University of Michigan
This collection consists of four summary variables based on new data collected by M. Watt Espy between 1986 and 1996 after he corrected and updated the data in 1992. See the related collection, EXECUTIONS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1608-2002: THE ESPY FILE (ICPSR 8451). The summary variables consist of the ethnicity of the executed, the state, territory, district or colony of execution, the decade of execution, and the geographical region of execution. They were complete as of March 1, 1996.
Espy, M. Watt, Howard Allen, and Jerome M. Clubb. Executions in the United States, 1608-1940: The ESPY File -- Summary Data of Executions Collected by M. Watt Espy Between 1986 and 1996. ICPSR23900-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2008-12-12. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR23900.v1
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR23900.v1
- RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
- EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)
This study was funded by:
- National Science Foundation (SES 84-09725)
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics
Scope of Study
Mode of Data Collection:
state Department of Corrections records, newspapers,
county histories, proceedings of state and local courts, holdings of
historical societies, and other listings of executions
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of
disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major
statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to
these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
Performed consistency checks.
Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2008-12-12
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