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Impact of Violent Victimization on Physical and Mental Health Among Women in the United States, 1994-1996 (ICPSR 21020) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The major goals of the project were to use survey data about victimization experiences among American women to examine: (a) the consequences of victimization for women's physical and mental health, (b) how the impact of victimization on women's health sequelae is conditioned by the victim's invoking of family and community support, and (c) how among victims of intimate partner violence, such factors as the relationship between the victim and offender, the offender's characteristics, and police involvement condition the impact of victimization on the victim's subsequent physical and mental health. This data collection consists of the SPSS syntax used to recode existing variables and create new variables from the study, VIOLENCE AND THREATS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND MEN IN THE UNITED STATES, 1994-1996 (ICPSR 2566). The study, also known as the National Violence against Women Survey (NVAWS), surveyed 8,000 women 18 years of age or older residing in households throughout the United States in 1995 and 1996. The data for the NVAWS were gathered via a national, random-digit dialing sample of telephone households in the United States, stratified by United States Census region. The NVAWS respondents were asked about their lifetime experiences with four different kinds of violent victimization: sexual abuse, physical abuse, stalking, and intimidation. Using the data from the NVAWS, the researchers in this study performed three separate analyses. The study included outcome variables, focal variables, moderator variables, and control variables.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

Dataset - Download All Files (1,136 KB)
Documentation:
Data:

Study Description

Citation

Kaukinen, Catherine E., and Alfred DeMaris. IMPACT OF VIOLENT VICTIMIZATION ON PHYSICAL AND MENTAL HEALTH AMONG WOMEN IN THE UNITED STATES, 1994-1996. ICPSR21020-v1. Columbia, SC: University of South Carolina [producer], 2003. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2007-10-26. doi:10.3886/ICPSR21020.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (2002-WG-BX-0005)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   assault, crime impact, health, intimate partner violence, mental health, social support, victimization, violence, violence against women

Smallest Geographic Unit:   none

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1994-11--1996-05

Date of Collection:  

  • 1995-11--1996-05

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   inap.

Data Types:   program source code

Data Collection Notes:

In order to use the SPSS syntax file provided in this collection, users must first obtain VIOLENCE AND THREATS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND MEN IN THE UNITED STATES, 1994-1996 (ICPSR 2566), available from the ICPSR Web site: http://www.icpsr.umich.edu.

Methodology

Study Purpose:   The major goals of the project were to use survey data about victimization experiences among American women to examine: (a) the consequences of childhood, adolescent, and adult victimization for women's physical and mental health, where violent victimization is defined by experiencing either physical or sexual assault, stalking, or threats from another person or persons, (b) how the impact of victimization on women's health sequelae is conditioned by the victim's invoking of family and community support, and (c) how among victims of intimate partner violence, such factors as the relationship between the victim and offender, the offender's characteristics (stake in conformity), and police involvement condition the impact of victimization on the victim's subsequent physical and mental health.

Study Design:   This data collection consists of the SPSS syntax used to recode existing variables and create new variables from the study, VIOLENCE AND THREATS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND MEN IN THE UNITED STATES, 1994-1996 (ICPSR 2566). The study, also know as the National Violence against Women Survey (NVAWS), surveyed 8,000 women 18 years of age or older residing in households throughout the United States in 1995 and 1996. The data for the NVAWS were gathered via a national, random-digit dialing sample of telephone households in the United States, stratified by United States Census region. The NVAWS respondents were asked about their lifetime experiences with four different kinds of violent victimization: sexual abuse, physical abuse, stalking, and intimidation. Respondents disclosing victimization were asked detailed questions about the characteristics and consequences of victimization as they experienced it, including injuries sustained and use of medical services. Incidents were recorded that had occurred at any time during the respondent's lifetime and also those that occurred within the 12 months prior to the interview. Additionally, respondents were queried about their physical and mental health, demographic characteristics, and characteristics of the current partner, if present. Due to the sensitive nature of the survey, female respondents were interviewed by women and when a respondent disclosed abuse or appeared in distress, local support services were offered. Using data from the NVAWS, the researchers in this study performed three separate analyses. The first analysis examined the consequences of violence for women's health. Second, for the sample of violent crime victims, the researchers examined how appealing to sources of community support conditions the impact of the victimization on health outcomes. Finally, the researchers examined the moderating effect of help-seeking on health outcomes in the context of violence by an intimate partner.

Sample:   The first set of analyses examining the consequences of childhood, adolescent, and adult victimization for women's subsequent physical and mental health were based on the full sample of women in the NVAWS. After omitting those with missing data on the response variables, involved samples ranged between 7,380 and 7,585 respondents. The second set of analyses examining the moderating effects of social support on physical and mental health outcomes employ the sample of women who had been the victim of sexual assault, physical assault, stalking or threats. After omitting those with missing data on the response variables, the involved samples ranged between 4,078 and 4,093 respondents. The final stage of the project identified the impact of intimate partner violence and examined the moderating effect of help-seeking strategies on the relationship between the extent/severity of victimization and health outcomes in the context of violent victimization by an intimate partner. In this last case, the researchers looked at how the moderating effect of community support is conditioned on the offender's stake in conformity. These analyses employed only those who had been victimized by a current partner. After omitting those with missing data on the response variables, the involved sample included 410 respondents.

Weight:   none

Mode of Data Collection:   computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)

Data Source:

VIOLENCE AND THREATS OF VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN AND MEN IN THE UNITED STATES, 1994-1996 (ICPSR 2566)

Description of Variables:   The study includes outcome variables, focal variables, moderator variables, and control variables. The outcome variables include: depressive symptomatology, concern for personal safety, self-protective behaviors, self-assessed health, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and the exhibition of substance use (heavy episodic drinking, illicit drug use, and prescription drug use). Focal variables measure the impact on physical and mental health of physical assault, sexual assault, stalking, and threatening. Moderator variables related to the victimization event, victim's help-seeking behavior, and characteristics of the perpetrator. The characteristics of the violent victimizations employed in the models include: life-course stage of victimization (child, teen, and adult), the victim-offender relationship (relative, acquaintance, stranger), and intimate partner (current or former). The help-seeking variables include family, friends, neighbors, and clergy, and the community support measures include rape crisis centers, domestic violence shelters, rape counselors, doctors, and psychiatrists. The police response variables include: arresting the perpetrator, taking a report, providing the victim with information on victim or court services, or providing advice on self-protection. Control variables include age, race, education, personal income, child abuse, number of children in the household, and dummy variables for having ever sustained a serious injury, having had a chronic disease or disabling health condition, having had a chronic mental condition, marital status, employment status, and being the first to hit the offender in cases of physical assault.

Response Rates:   Not applicable.

Presence of Common Scales:   The 12 items on physical victimization in the NVAWS were adaptations of items in the Conflict Tactics Scales (Straus, 1979, #4629). The PTSD inventory used in the NVAWS was adopted from the "Impact of Event Scale" developed by Daniel Weiss. Several Likert-type scales were also used in the NVAWS. For this project, the researchers developed a depression scale, a scale of extent/severity of assault, a concern for safety scale, as well as scales of alcohol and drug use.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

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