Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Employment and Income Interview, Wave 1, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 13587)
Principal Investigator(s): Earls, Felton J., Harvard Medical School; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Scientific Director. Columbia University. Teacher's College. Center for the Study of Children and Families; Raudenbush, Stephen W., Scientific Director. University of Michigan. School of Education and Survey Research Center; Sampson, Robert J., Scientific Director. Harvard University. Department of Sociology
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. The Employment and Income Interview was an atypical measure in that its primary concern was not to evaluate the developmental circumstances but rather to assess the economic circumstances surrounding the subjects. The Employment and Income Interview was administered to the subjects' primary caregivers for Cohorts 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 and to the subjects themselves for Cohort 18. The Employment and Income Interview was developed specifically for the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study with the intent of combining the employment and income data obtained with educational status data to create socioeconomic stratifications for the respondents. The Employment and Income Interview sought to obtain data describing the respondent's current or most recent employment and that of his or her partner. The Employment and Income Interview also sought information regarding primary income and additional sources of income as well total working hours, proximity to work, and means of transportation to work for both the respondent and his or her partner.
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Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Employment and Income Interview, Wave 1, 1994-1995. ICPSR13587-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-07-08. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13587.v1
Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13587.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
- John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
- Harris Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005)
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
- United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
- Turner Foundation
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: adolescents, caregivers, child development, childhood, commuting (travel), compensation, employment, full time employment, income, job history, neighborhoods, occupational categories, occupations, part time employment, personal income, social behavior, volunteers, wages and salaries, working hours
The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection.
At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences.
Employment and Income Interview
The data in this collection are from Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was administered between 1994 and 1997. The data files contain information from the Employment and Income Interview protocol. The Employment and Income Interview compiled various data regarding the employment and income of the primary caregivers (Cohorts 0 to 15) and subjects (Cohort 18) to whom the interview was administered and their partners, when applicable. The purpose was to describe the economic conditions of the families participating in the Longitudinal Cohort Study.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts and geographic boundaries, and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed.
For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. Interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Polish. In Wave 1 the complete protocol was translated into Spanish and Polish. An interpreter was hired for participants who spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes were also included.
Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use.
Employment and Income Interview
The Employment and Income Interview was completed by primary caregivers (Cohorts 0 to 15) and subjects (Cohort 18). The interview contained questions regarding the employment status and income earned by the respondents in order to give an overview of the economic conditions under which the Longitudinal Cohort Study participants lived. Each respondent was asked to respond to questions concerning the details of his or her partner's employment and salary to give a complete summary of the household's economic situation. The response format for the Employment and Income Interview varied from question to question. Some questions were petitioned straightforward, yes or no responses. Other questions offered multiple choices of which the respondent was permitted to select the one response which best described their situation. Multiple responses were permitted for questions regarding the respondent's transportation to work. Additionally, there were questions that allowed for open-ended responses.
Description of Variables: The variables from the Employment and Income questionnaire sought to gather information regarding the socioeconomic status of the family. Variables included in the Employment and Income data quantify information describing type of employment, proximity to job, and means of transportation. Other variables recorded salary information, number of working hours, and alternative sources of income. Also included were various administrative variables to specify such information as cohort, time and date that the measure was conducted, and identification variables for both the respondent and the interviewer.
The overall response rate for Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 75 percent or 6,228 participants. The response rates by cohort were:
- 76.2 percent (1,269) for Cohort 0
- 76.6 percent (1,003) for Cohort 3
- 75.0 percent (980) for Cohort 6
- 75.9 percent (828) for Cohort 9
- 74.3 percent (820) for Cohort 12
- 71.6 percent (696) for Cohort 15
- 70.3 percent (632) for Cohort 18
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2005-07-08
- 2006-02-17 Data were moved to restricted access. The metadata record was changed accordingly.
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