Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Young Adult Self Report, Wave 1, 1994-1995 (ICPSR 13606)
Principal Investigator(s): Earls, Felton J., Harvard Medical School; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne, Scientific Director. Columbia University. Teacher's College. Center for the Study of Children and Families; Raudenbush, Stephen W., Scientific Director. University of Michigan. School of Education and Survey Research Center; Sampson, Robert J., Scientific Director. Harvard University. Department of Sociology
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences. One of the measures that composed the Longitudinal Cohort Study was the Young Adult Self Report (YASR). The YASR protocol, a self-administered survey, was first developed by Thomas M. Achenbach and has been a widely used measure for evaluating subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 with respect to their functioning in social relationships, level of mental, emotional and physical health, substance use and abuse, as well as tendencies toward anti-social and criminal behavior. The PHDCN version of the Young Adult Self Report provided a thorough self assessment of the respondents belonging to Cohort 18 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study and scored each respondent based on his or her level of psychological and behavioral functioning.
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Earls, Felton J., Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, Stephen W. Raudenbush, and Robert J. Sampson. Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN): Young Adult Self Report, Wave 1, 1994-1995. ICPSR13606-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2005-07-08. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13606.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR13606.v1
This study was funded by:
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Head Start Bureau
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute of Mental Health
- Turner Foundation
- John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. Administration for Children and Families. Child Care Bureau
- Harris Foundation
- United States Department of Education. Office of Educational Research and Improvement
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
- United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (93-IJ-CX-K005)
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: adolescents, anxiety, behavior problems, caregivers, child development, childhood, conflict, depression (psychology), drug abuse, emotional states, fear, health status, interpersonal conflict, interpersonal relations, neighborhoods, personality, personality assessment, psychological evaluation, self concept, self esteem, self evaluation, social behavior, stress, substance abuse
(1) The Murray Research Center conducted the initial data and documentation processing for this collection. (2) At present, only a restricted version of the data is available (see RESTRICTIONS field). A downloadable version of the data is slated to be available in the near future.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods (PHDCN) was a large-scale, interdisciplinary study of how families, schools, and neighborhoods affect child and adolescent development. It was designed to advance the understanding of the developmental pathways of both positive and negative human social behaviors. In particular, the project examined the causes and pathways of juvenile delinquency, adult crime, substance abuse, and violence. At the same time, the project provided a detailed look at the environments in which these social behaviors took place by collecting substantial amounts of data about urban Chicago, including its people, institutions, and resources.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
One component of the PHDCN was the Longitudinal Cohort Study, which was a series of coordinated longitudinal studies that followed over 6,000 randomly selected children, adolescents, and young adults, and their primary caregivers over time to examine the changing circumstances of their lives, as well as the personal characteristics, that might lead them toward or away from a variety of antisocial behaviors. The age cohorts include birth (0), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years. Numerous measures were administered to respondents to gauge various aspects of human development, including individual differences, as well as family, peer, and school influences.
Young Adult Self Report (YASR)
The data files contain information from the Young Adult Self Report (YASR) protocol. The YASR was an extension of the Youth Self-Report, designed to obtain a self perceived assessment for subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 in order to measure behavioral and emotional functioning. The widely used YASR has been shown in a variety of experiments to produce excellent results evaluating its respondents' levels of psychological and behavioral functioning. As a result, it proved to be the ideal instrument to evaluate the subjects belonging to Cohort 18 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study. The PHDCN YASR focused primarily on obtaining the information on specific aspects of the respondents' lives, such as interpersonal relationships and conflicts, tendencies toward various anti- social behaviors, and habits regarding nonmedical drug and alcohol consumption. The YASR also sought to identify personality traits and behaviors that might be classified as unusual. The goal of the YASR was to obtain an overall score for each respondent based on the answers provided that could be used to make observations and determinations regarding their psychological, emotional, and behavioral health and overall quality of life.
Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods
The city of Chicago was selected as the research site for the PHDCN because of its extensive racial, ethnic, and social-class diversity. The project collapsed 847 census tracts in the city of Chicago into 343 neighborhood clusters (NCs) based upon seven groupings of racial/ethnic composition and three levels of socioeconomic status. The NCs were designed to be ecologically meaningful. They were composed of geographically contiguous census tracts, and geographic boundaries and knowledge of Chicago's neighborhoods were considered in the definition of the NCs. Each NC was comprised of approximately 8,000 people.
Longitudinal Cohort Study
For the Longitudinal Cohort Study, a stratified probability sample of 80 neighborhoods was selected. The 80 NCs were sampled from the 21 strata (seven racial/ethnic groups by three socioeconomic levels) with the goal of representing the 21 cells as equally as possible to eliminate the confounding between racial/ethnic mix and socioeconomic status. Once the 80 NCs were chosen, then block groups were selected at random within each of the sample neighborhoods. A complete listing of dwelling units was collected for all sampled block groups. Pregnant women, children, and young adults in seven age cohorts (birth, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, and 18 years) were identified through in-person screening of approximately 40,000 dwelling units within the 80 NCs. The screening response rate was 80 percent. Children within six months of the birthday that qualified them for the sample were selected for inclusion in the Longitudinal Cohort Study. A total of 8,347 participants were identified through the screening. Of the eligible study participants, 6,228 were interviewed.
For all cohorts except 0 and 18, primary caregivers as well as the child were interviewed. The primary caregiver was the person found to spend the most time taking care of the child. Separate research assistants administered the primary caregiver interviews and the child interviews. The primary method of data collection was face-to-face interviewing, although participants who refused to complete the personal interview were administered a phone interview. Interviews were conducted in Spanish, English, and Polish. In Wave 1 the complete protocol was translated into Spanish and Polish. An interpreter was hired for participants who spoke a language other than English, Spanish, or Polish. Depending on the age and wave of data collection, participants were paid between $5 and $20 per interview. Other incentives, such as free passes to museums, the aquarium, and monthly drawing prizes were also included.
Interview protocols included a wide range of questions. For example, some questions assessed impulse control and sensation-seeking traits, cognitive and language development, leisure activities, delinquency and substance abuse, friends' activities, and self-perception, attitudes, and values. Caregivers were also interviewed about family structure, parent characteristics, parent-child relationships, parent discipline styles, family mental health, and family history of criminal behavior and drug use.
Young Adult Self Report (YASR)
Completed between 1994 and 1995, the Young Adult Self Report was completed by the subjects belonging to Cohort 18 of the PHDCN Longitudinal Cohort Study. The PHDCN version of the Young Adult Self Report consisted of 138 questions, some with multiple parts, and was designed to obtain information corresponding to several aspects of the respondents' psychological and behavioral functioning. Because of the potentially sensitive nature of much of the information sought by the YASR, the fact that the YASR was self-administered was important for ensuring that the respondents would feel comfortable responding honestly, without the inhibitions and fear of judgment that might have been present had the measure been administered by an interviewer. Respondents were asked to rate themselves on how truthfully each statement characterized their behaviors, thoughts, and actions. Respondents rated themselves on nine different facets of psychological and behavioral functioning. For example, the YASR attempted to record information indicating whether or not the respondents could be characterized by having internalized problems. To achieve this, subjects were asked if they believed statements such as "I feel lonely" or "I am shy" to be true of themselves. The response format for the majority of questions was 0 = not true, 1 = somewhat true, and 2 = very true. Multiple responses were not permitted. Questions regarding the respondents' substance use and abuse during the previous six months followed the response format 0 = no, 1 = yes. Further questions pertaining to substance use and abuse were posed in an open-ended fashion and sought to gain specific information regarding the frequency of alcohol and nonmedical drug use and abuse.
Description of Variables: In addition to the variables containing the responses to the YASR, there are nine scale variables that score each respondent with respect to the different syndromes that the YASR attempted to identify. Thus, each respondent received a withdrawn score, somatic problems score, anxious/depressed score, show-off problems score, delinquent behavior score, aggressive behavior score, strange behavior score, internalizing score, and externalizing score. The internalizing score variable is a combination of the anxious/depressed score and the withdrawn score, while the externalizing score is composed of the delinquent behavior score and the aggressive behavior score. A tenth variable contains the respondent's total YASR score, which is simply the sum of the other nine scores. Higher scores suggest the presence of behavioral and emotional problems. As such, lower scores are more desirable. Lastly, there are a number of administrative variables to record identification numbers for respondents and the interviewers, as well as the time and date that the respondent completed the YASR.
The overall response rate for Wave 1 of the Longitudinal Cohort Study was 75 percent or 6,228 participants. The response rates by cohort were:
- 76.2 percent (1,269) for Cohort 0
- 76.6 percent (1,003) for Cohort 3
- 75.0 percent (980) for Cohort 6
- 75.9 percent (828) for Cohort 9
- 74.3 percent (820) for Cohort 12
- 71.6 percent (696) for Cohort 15
- 70.3 percent (632) for Cohort 18
Extent of Processing: ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:
- Created online analysis version with question text.
- Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
- Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.
Original ICPSR Release: 2005-07-08
- 2006-03-01 Data were moved to restricted access. The metadata record was changed accordingly.
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