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Pub. Year
Citation
2013
Kaminski, Robert J.,  Engel, Robin S.,  Rojek, Jeff,  Smith, Michael R.,  Alpert, Geoffrey . A quantum of force: The consequences of counting routine conducted energy weapon punctures as injuries. Justice Quarterly.
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2011
Alpert, Geoffrey P.,  Smith, Michael R.,  Kaminski, Robert J.,  Fridell, Lorie A. Police Use of Force, Tasers and Other Less-Lethal Weapons. Research in Brief. NCJ 232215, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
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2011
Taylor, Bruce,  Alpert, Geoffrey,  Kubu, Bruce,  Woods, Daniel,  Dunham, Roger G. Changes in officer use of force over time: A descriptive analysis of a national survey. Policing. 34, (2), 211-232.
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2010
Smith, Michael R.,  Kaminski, Robert J.,  Alpert, Geoffrey P.,  Fridell, Lorie A.,  MacDonald, John,  Kubu, Bruce . A Multi-Method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes. Executive Summary. NCJ 231177, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
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2010
Alpert, Geoffrey P.,  Dunham, Roger G. Policy and training recommendations related to police use of CEDs: Overview of findings from a comrehensive national study. Police Quarterly. 13, (3), 235-259.
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2010
Smith, Michael R.,  Kaminski, Robert J.,  Alpert, Geoffrey P.,  Fridell, Lorie A.,  MacDonald, John,  Kubu, Bruce . A Multi-method Evaluation of Police Use of Force Outcomes. Final Report. NCJ 231176, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
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2010
Bulman, Philip . Police Use of Force: The Impact of Less-Lethal Weapons and Tactics . NIJ Journal. 267, Washington, DC: United States Department of Justice, National Institute of Justice.
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2009
MacDonald, John M.,  Kaminski, Robert J.,  Smith, Michael R. The effect of less-lethal weapons on injuries in police use of force events. American Journal of Public Health. 99, (12), 2268-2274.
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2004
Alpert, Geoffrey P.,  Dunham, Roger G. Understanding Police Use of Force: Officers, Suspects, and Reciprocity. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
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