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Your query returned 7 citations.

1.
2014
Raphael, Steven . The New Scarlet Letter? Negotiating the U.S. Labor Market with a Criminal Record. Kalamazoo, MI: W.E. Upjohn Institute for Employment Research.
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2.
2013
Raphael, Steven,  Stoll, Michael A. Assessing the contribution of the deinstitutionalization of the mentally ill to growth in the U.S. incarceration rate. Journal of Legal Studies. 42, (1), 187-222.
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3.
2013
Raphael, Steven,  Stoll, Michael A. Why Are So Many Americans in Prison?. New York, NY: Russell Sage Foundation.
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4.
2012
Johnson, Rucker,  Raphael, Steven . How much crime reduction does the marginal prisoner buy?. Journal of Law and Economics. 55, (2), 275-310.
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6.
2007
Raphael, Steven . Understanding the Causes and Labor Market Consequences of the Steep Increases in U.S. Incarceration Rates. New Labor Market Institutions and the Public Policy Response: A Symposium to Honor Lloyd Ulman. Berkeley, CA.
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7.
2001
Raphael, Steven,  Winter-Ebner, Rudolf . Identifying the effect of unemployment on crime. Journal of Law and Economics. 44, (1), 259-283.
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