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Survey of School Psychology in Developed and Developing Countries, 1987-1990 (ICPSR 9768)

Principal Investigator(s): Oakland, Thomas L.; Cunningham, Jacqueline L.


The purpose of this study was to replicate surveys on school psychology conducted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) and the International Bureau of Education (IBE) in 1948 and 1954. Knowledgeable professionals in the field of school psychology were chosen in various countries to report on the current state of the field in their respective countries. For questions requiring information that was generally available but not necessarily common knowledge, respondents were asked to locate and supply this information. The survey includes data for 54 developed and developing countries. Major areas of investigation were (1) demographic characteristics of school psychologists, (2) roles and functions of school psychologists, (3) legal, political, and professional regulations governing the field, (4) preparation and credentialing of practitioners, (5) importance of research, (6) future trends in the field.

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Study Description


Oakland, Thomas L., and Jacqueline L. Cunningham. Survey of School Psychology in Developed and Developing Countries, 1987-1990. ICPSR09768-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1994. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09768.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09768.v1

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  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • International School Psychology Association

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    counseling, credentials, demographic characteristics, developing nations, education, health care services, international organizations, nations, regulation, research, school personnel

Geographic Coverage:    Global

Time Period:   

  • 1987--1990

Date of Collection:   

  • 1987--1990

Universe:    Members in one or more international psychology associations (e.g., International School Psychology Association, International Association of Applied Psychology).

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The data contain periods to represent system missing data for numeric variables.


Sample:    Nonprobability sample of experts in social psychology, with particular expertise in the preparation of students in psychology for work in a school environment. Respondents were identified on the basis of professional association memberships (e.g., International School Psychology Association, International Association of Applied Psychology), acknowledgment of personal expertise in the area of school psychology by such national associations, a publication record in the area of school psychology, associations with established scholars in the area, and recommendation of the respondents' ministries of education.

Data Source:

(1) self-administered questionnaires and (2) World Bank. WORLD DEVELOPMENT REPORT, 1984. New York, NY: Oxford Press, 1989.


Original ICPSR Release:   1995-03-16


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