National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Drinking and Driving: A Survey of Licensed Drivers in the United States, 1986 (ICPSR 9599)

Principal Investigator(s): Snortum, John R.; Berger, Dale E.


This data collection focuses on perceptions and experiences regarding driving and alcohol consumption. Respondents were asked questions about their average alcohol consumption, whether they refrained from drinking or moderated their behavior if they knew they would be driving, whether they ever drove while intoxicated, how many drinks they estimated it would take to make them legally drunk as defined by the laws of their state, whether they had been arrested for driving under the influence of liquor during the past year, and whether they and their friends ever had a designated driver when they went to a place where alcohol was served. Questions were also asked about perceptions of other people's behavior, such as whether designating a driver or refraining from driving after drinking is a common practice, and whether drunk driving is viewed as a serious offense in the community. Additional questions concerned knowledge of local laws and penalties regarding drunk driving. Demographic questions included age, education, family income, and whether employed.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


Dataset - Download All Files (3.041 MB)
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Study Description


Snortum, John R., and Dale Berger. DRINKING AND DRIVING: A SURVEY OF LICENSED DRIVERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1986. Santa Ana, CA: Decision/Making/Information [producer], 1986. ICPSR version. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2001.

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-8510383)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    alcohol consumption, drinking behavior, driving under the influence, drunkenness, perceptions

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1986

Universe:    Licensed drivers in the United States.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) This data collection is a replication of a previous study, DRINKING AND DRIVING: A SURVEY OF LICENSED DRIVERS IN THE UNITED STATES, 1983 (ICPSR 8356). (2) Some descriptions of recodes of original data by the PI were lost in transmission of the data definition statements to ICPSR. (3) The codebook is provided as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    The number of respondents sampled in each state was proportional to the population of that state.

Data Source:

telephone interviews

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1992-01-10

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
  • 2001-11-14 Additional recoded variables were added to the data file with corresponding electronic documentation in Portable Document Format (PDF) and SAS data definition statements. Existing SPSS data definition statements were updated.

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