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National Sample from the 1880 Census of Manufacturing (ICPSR 9385)

Principal Investigator(s): Atack, Jeremy; Bateman, Fred


This collection presents information from the 1880 census of manufacturing in 36 states and the District of Columbia. It was originally collected to paint a quantitative picture of industrialization in the United States. The data describe states and counties in terms of urban or rural, amount of capital invested, and numbers of male, female, and child workers employed. Additional information includes daily wage for skilled and unskilled labor, annual wage bill, hours in ordinary day's labor, number of waterwheels and steam engines, and horsepower by water or steam.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Atack, Jeremy, and Fred Bateman. NATIONAL SAMPLE FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING. 2nd ICPSR version. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois/Bloomington, IN: Indiana University [producers], 2004. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2004. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09385.v2

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09385.v2

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SES-86-05637, and SES-86-09392)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    census data, historical data, industrialization, manufacturing, nineteenth century, wages and salaries, workers

Smallest Geographic Unit:    city

Geographic Coverage:    United States

Time Period:   

  • 1880

Date of Collection:   

  • 1986

Unit of Observation:    establishment/plant

Universe:    United States and territories for which records were extant.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) These data can be analyzed at the national and/or regional level, but not the state level. For state-level analyses, use the data available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING (ICPSR 9384). (2) State data for other nineteenth century censuses are available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4071). (3) National data for other nineteenth century census are available as NATIONAL SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4048). (4) The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:    Random samples from the U.S. Census.

Data Source:

Bureau of the Census documents


Original ICPSR Release:   1990-12-04

Version History:

  • 2004-10-08 The data and documentation were updated by Jeremy Atack and resupplied to ICPSR in 2004.

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