This study is provided by ICPSR. ICPSR provides leadership and training in data access, curation, and methods of analysis for a diverse and expanding social science research community.

Wages of War, 1816-1980: Augmented with Disputes and Civil War Data (ICPSR 9044)

Principal Investigator(s): Singer, J. David; Small, Melvin


These data were collected to study the trends and changes in the frequency, magnitude, severity, and intensity of international wars, civil wars, and international disputes. The data collection consists of two separate datasets. For each dataset, the unit of analysis is the participant in a particular conflict. While the two datasets are related, they are mutually exclusive in that each describes a particular type of war (interstate or civil) or a dispute. Part 1, Experience of Each Interstate System Member in Each War, provides information on each member's experience in each war. To be considered a nation participant, certain minimal criteria of population and diplomatic recognition were used. Qualifying nation participants are classified as to whether they were members of the European central system at the time of the war and, therefore, active and influential in European diplomacy. The geographical location of the war is coded as well as the severity of the war, as determined by its duration and the number of deaths resulting from battle. The pre-war population of each nation participant is also coded. Part 2, Major Civil Wars Between 1816 and 1980, is a study of 106 major civil wars involving 139 participants between 1816 and 1980. An internal war is classified as a major civil war if (1) military action was involved, (2) the national government at the time was actively involved, (3) effective resistance (as measured by the ratio of fatalities of the weaker to the stronger forces) occurred on both sides, and (4) at least 1,000 battle deaths resulted during the civil war. The geographical area in which the war was fought is also coded as well as whether nations outside the civil war actively and overtly participated on one side or the other. The duration, beginning, and ending dates of the civil war, and the pre-war population and number in the armed forces of each participant, are also included.

Access Notes

  • This data collection has been deaccessioned; it is no longer distributed by ICPSR. Additional information may be available in Data Collection Notes.

    2012-02-02 This data collection has been deaccessioned and is no longer available.
    This study is replaced by CORRELATES OF WAR PROJECT: INTERNATIONAL AND CIVIL WAR DATA, 1816-1992 (ICPSR 9905).

Study Description


Singer, J. David, and Melvin Small. WAGES OF WAR, 1816-1980: AUGMENTED WITH DISPUTES AND CIVIL WAR DATA. ICPSR09044-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1984. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09044.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR09044.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    aggression, armed conflict, armed forces, census data, civil wars, international affairs, international conflict, nations, nineteenth century, political history, populations, trend analysis, twentieth century, violence, war, war deaths, world wars

Geographic Coverage:    Global

Time Period:   

  • 1816--1980

Data Type(s):    administrative records data

Data Collection Notes:

2012-02-02 This data collection has been deaccessioned and is no longer available.



Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-07-12