National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Penal Code Citations: Sentencing in 18 American Felony Courts, 1983 (ICPSR 8396)

Principal Investigator(s):


The purpose of this study was to describe sentencing outcomes in 18 jurisdictions across the United States based on sentences actually imposed on adjudicated felons. Such descriptive information provides an overview of how sentencing is operating in a jurisdiction as a whole and supplies a baseline against which the impact of changes in sentencing codes and practices can be assessed. The data focus on sentences handed down in courts of general jurisdiction for selected crimes of homicide, rape, robbery, aggravated assault, burglary, theft, and drug trafficking.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.


DS1:  Jurisdiction 1 - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
DS2:  Jurisdiction 2 - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
DS3:  Jurisdiction 4 - Download All Files (0.6 MB)
DS4:  Jurisdiction 5 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS5:  Jurisdiction 6 - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
DS6:  Jurisdiction 7 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS7:  Jurisdiction 8 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS8:  Jurisdiction 9 - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
DS9:  Jurisdiction 10 - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
DS10:  Jurisdiction 11 - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
DS11:  Jurisdiction 12 - Download All Files (0.7 MB)
DS12:  Jurisdiction 13 - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
DS13:  Jurisdiction 14 - Download All Files (0.6 MB)
DS14:  Jurisdiction 15 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS15:  Jurisdiction 17 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS16:  Jurisdiction 18 - Download All Files (0.6 MB)
DS17:  Jurisdiction 19 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS18:  Jurisdiction 20 - Download All Files (0.5 MB)
DS19:  All Jurisdictions - Download All Files (5.5 MB)

Study Description


Cunniff, Mark A. PENAL CODE CITATIONS: SENTENCING IN 18 AMERICAN FELONY COURTS, 1983. Conducted by the National Association of Criminal Justice Planners. 3rd ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1997.

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. Bureau of Justice Statistics (82-BJ-CX-KO46)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   courts, felony offenses, homicide, judicial decisions, rape, robbery, sentencing, sentencing guidelines

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1983

Date of Collection:  

  • 1983

Universe:   All adjudicated felons in 18 United States jurisdictions.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

There are no data files for Jurisdictions 3 and 16.


Data Source:

court and prosecutorial records

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Standardized missing values.
  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
  • 1997-04-14 SAS data definition statements are now available for this collection, and the SPSS data definition statements were updated. In addition, multiple copies of the codebook were consolidated into one volume, and an incorrect variable number was fixed in the codebook.

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