National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Influence of Sanctions and Opportunities on Rates of Bank Robbery, 1970-1975: [United States] (ICPSR 8260)

Principal Investigator(s): Camp, George M.; Gould, LeRoy


This study was designed to explain variations in crime rates and to examine the deterrent effects of sanctions on crime. The study concentrated on bank robberies, but it also examined burglaries and other kinds of robberies. In examining these effects the study condidered three sets of factors: (1) Economic considerations-- the cost/benefit factors that individuals consider in deciding whether or not to perform a crime, (2) Degree of anomie--the amount of alienation and isolation individuals feel toward society and the effect of these feelings on the individuals' performing a crime, and (3) Opportunity--the effect of exposure, attractiveness, and degree of guardianship on an object being taken. These factors were explored by gathering information on such topics as: crime clearance rates, arrests, and sentences, bank attributes, and socioeconomic and demographic information.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.


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Study Description


Camp, George M., and LeRoy Gould. INFLUENCE OF SANCTIONS AND OPPORTUNITIES ON RATES OF BANK ROBBERY, 1970-1975: [UNITED STATES]. South Salem, NY: The Criminal Justice Institute, Inc. [producers], 1987. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1987.

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This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (79-NI-AX-0117)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    arrests, banks, burglary, crime, criminal justice system, demographic characteristics, income, migration, robbery, sentencing, social class structure, unemployment, urban affairs, United States

Time Period:   

  • 1970--1975

Universe:    Bank robberies in the fifty states, 1970-1975.

Data Type(s):    aggregate data


Sample:    The data collection is a pooled cross-sectional time-series of bank robberies in 50 states over a period of 6 years (1970-1975), resulting in 300 observations.

Data Source:

(1) FBI Uniform Crime Reports, (2) National Crime Survey data, (3) FBI Bank Robbery Division - state statistics, (4) FBI Bank Robber Unit - individual statistics, (5) U.S. Census, (6) Sourcebook of Criminal Justice Statistics, (7) FBI's NCIC CCH data file tape, (8) Federal Regulatory Agencies - FDIC and Federal Home Loan Band Board, (9) data collected by Thomas F. Pogue, Department of Economics, University of Iowa, " Econometric Analysis of the Deterrent Effects of Arrest and Imprisonment," and (10) Statistical Abstract of the United States


Original ICPSR Release:   1987-10-12

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