Principal Investigator(s): Hofferth, Sandra, University of Michigan. Survey Research Center; Stafford, Frank P., University of Michigan. Survey Research Center; Yeung, Wei-Jun J., University of Michigan. Survey Research Center; Duncan, Greg J., University of Michigan. Survey Research Center; Hill, Martha S., University of Michigan. Survey Research Center; Lepkowski, James, University of Michigan. Survey Research Cente; Morgan, James N., University of Michigan. Survey Research Center
The Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) is an ongoing data collection effort begun in 1968 in an attempt to fill the need for a better understanding of the determinants of family income and its changes. Core data are collected annually, with each new wave of family data constituting a separate data file (Parts 2-27, 201-205). Data on individuals are contained in Part 1, Cross-Year Individual File, 1968-1993 (Waves 1-26) [Public Release II], and an early release of individual-level data through 1999 is included in Part 201, Cross-Year Individual File, 1968-1999 (Waves 1-31) [Public Release I]. The PSID has continued to trace individuals from the original national sample of approximately 4,800 households, whether those individuals are living in the same dwelling or with the same people. The investigators hoped to discover whether most short-term changes in economic status are due to forces outside the family or if they can be traced to something in the individual's own background or in the pattern of his or her thinking and behavior. The data can shed light on what causes family income to rise above or fall below the poverty line. In line with the theoretical model, the questions asked fall generally under the headings of economic status, economic behavior, demographics, and attitudes. Specifically, they deal with topics such as employment, income sources and amounts, housing, car ownership, food expenditures, transportation, do-it-yourself home maintenance and car repairs, education, disability, time use, family background, family composition changes, and residential location. Content of a more sociological or psychological nature is also included in some waves of the study. Information gathered in the survey applies to the circumstances of the family unit as a whole (e.g., type of housing) or to particular persons in the family unit (e.g., age, earnings). While some information is collected about all individuals in the family unit, the greatest level of detail is ascertained for the primary adults heading the family unit. Core topics in the PSID include income sources and amounts, poverty status, public assistance in the form of food or housing, other financial matters (e.g., taxes, inter-household transfers), family structure and demographic measures (e.g., marital events, birth and adoptions, children forming households), labor market participation (e.g., employment status, vacation/sick time, occupation, industry, work experience), housing (e.g., own/rent, house value/rent payment, size), geographic mobility (e.g., when and why moved, where head of household grew up, all states head of household lived in), and socioeconomic background (e.g., education, ethnicity, religion, military service, parents' education, occupation, poverty status). Beginning in 1985, comprehensive retrospective fertility and marriage histories of individuals in the households were assembled.
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Hofferth, Sandra, Frank P. Stafford, Wei-Jun J. Yeung, Greg J. Duncan, Martha S. Hill, James Lepkowski, and James N. Morgan. Panel Study of Income Dynamics, 1968-1999: Annual Core Data. ICPSR07439-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2002. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07439.v1
Persistent URL: http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR07439.v1
This study was funded by:
- National Science Foundation
- Ford Foundation
- United States Department of Labor
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. National Institute on Aging
- United States Department of Health, Education and Welfare
- United States Department of Agriculture. Office of Economic Opportunity
- Alfred P. Sloan Foundation
- Rockefeller Foundation
- Spencer Foundation
- Tinker Foundation
- United States Department of Health and Human Services. National Institutes of Health. Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development
Scope of Study
Subject Terms: attitudes, economic behavior, economic change, economic conditions, employment history, families, family history, fertility, food aid, household expenditures, household income, housing, income, marriage, population trends, poverty, social change, social indicators, socioeconomic status
Geographic Coverage: United States
Date of Collection:
Universe: Households that had at least one member of the noninstitutionalized population of the 48 contiguous states and the District of Columbia. The portion of the sample called the SRC subsample, when taken by itself, was representative of the households in the coterminous United States in 1968. The second subsample consisted of the low-income nonelderly households sampled by the United States Census Bureau for the 1966-1967 Survey of Economic Opportunity. These households, drawn with unequal probabilities of selection that depended on geographic location, age, race, and income, were added to the sample to insure that there would be a sufficient number of low-income and, especially, Black low-income households to permit separate analyses of these populations.
Data Types: aggregate data, survey data
Data Collection Notes:
The "original" PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS (PSID) (ICPSR 7439) has been broken out by ICPSR into three separate data collections: PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1968-1999: ANNUAL CORE DATA (ICPSR 7439), PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1968-1999: SUPPLEMENTAL FILES (ICPSR 3202), and PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1989-1990: LATINO SAMPLE (ICPSR 3203). This collection, PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1968-1999: ANNUAL CORE DATA (ICPSR 7439), now contains only the cross-year individual files and family files.
Parts 1-27 are all Public Release II (or final release) versions of the PSID data. Parts 201-205 are Public Release I (or early release) versions.
The Public Release I files (Parts 201-205) are preliminary and should be ordered by experienced PSID users only. Documentation for these files is incomplete, and PSID staff will offer virtually no assistance with their use. ICPSR can offer only technical assistance in reading the files, and can provide no substantive advice on their use. These files will be replaced with the final versions of the data and documentation when they have been completed. All but the most experienced users are asked to wait until that time to order the data.
Weights are provided for analysis. The weights for individuals are different from those for families.
Users are encouraged to check the PSID Web site at http://www.isr.umich.edu/src/psid/ for updates to this collection. A complete bibliography of publications can also be accessed at the site.
Sample: The sample is a combination of a representative cross-section of nearly 3,000 families selected from the University of Michigan Survey Research Center's (SRC's) master sampling frame and a subsample of about 1,900 low-income families previously interviewed by the United States Census Bureau for the Office of Economic Opportunity. The combined sample is appropriately weighted to be representative of all people in the United States. Heads of the same families have been interviewed each year since 1968, as have the heads of families containing members who were part of a 1968 household and later left to start households of their own or to join another household. Panel losses have been more than offset by the addition of these newly formed families, bringing the present sample size to near 7,000.
personal and telephone interviews, mailback questionnaires, and census data
Original ICPSR Release: 1984-05-11
- 2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 81 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.
- 2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 80 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.
- 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.
- 2002-09-25 This collection has been updated with Public Release II (final release) data for the Cross-Year Individual File (Part 1) and the Family Files (Parts 2-27), encompassing the years 1968-1993. Also, Public Release I (early release) data are now available for the Cross-Year Individual File, 1968-1999 (Part 201), and the Family Files, 1994-1997 (Parts 202-205). Corresponding SAS and SPSS data definition statements and PDF codebooks have been added for each file. The "original" PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS (PSID) (ICPSR 7439) has been broken out by ICPSR into three separate data collections: PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1968-1999: ANNUAL CORE DATA (ICPSR 7439), PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1968-1999: SUPPLEMENTAL FILES (ICPSR 3202), and PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1989-1990: LATINO SAMPLE (ICPSR 3203). This collection, PANEL STUDY OF INCOME DYNAMICS, 1968-1999: ANNUAL CORE DATA (ICPSR 7439), now contains only the cross-year individual files and family files.
- 1997-02-24 (1) Part 1, Cross-Year Individual File, 1968-1992 (Waves I-XXV), and its codebook and SAS and SPSS data definition statements were reissued and are current as of October 1996. The most significant changes are to V32015 (MARITAL STATUS OF MOTHER AT TIME OF INDIVIDUAL'S BIRTH). Minor changes were also made in that file to variables derived from Part 68, Childbirth and Adoption History File, 1985-1992 (Waves XVIII-XXV) (V32009-V32014 and V32016-V32032). Also in Part 1, variable V32700 (RELEASE NUMBER) was added and has a value of "003" for all records. (2) Part 68, Childbirth and Adoption History File, 1985-1992 (Waves XVIII-XXV), as well as its WordPerfect 5.1 codebook and SAS and SPSS data definition statements, were reissued and are current as of August 1996. The most significant changes to Part 68 are to V7 (MARITAL STATUS OF MOTHER AT TIME OF INDIVIDUAL'S BIRTH). The codebook for Part 68 is also available in hardcopy form upon request from ICPSR. (3) Part 49, Family File, 1991 (Wave XXIV), and its codebook and SAS and SPSS data definition statements were reissued and are current as of July 1996. In that data file, values for V20243 (1991 CORE FAMILY WEIGHT) and V20244 (1991 LATINO FAM WEIGHT) were recomputed--the changes affect 282 core families and 290 Latino families. V20245 (COMBINED FAM WEIGHT) is not affected. Also in Part 49, the values for V19001 (RELEASE NUMBER) were changed to "003". In addition, the questionnaire for Part 49 is now available as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. (4) An errata sheet for the PSID CD-ROM (CD0011) details the above-mentioned changes to these files. This sheet is available through the ICPSR Website and in hardcopy form upon request from ICPSR. (5) New data files with corresponding codebooks and SAS and SPSS data definition statements were also added: Part 76, Family Wealth Supplement Data, 1984 (Wave XVII), Part 77, Family Wealth Supplement Data, 1989 (Wave XXII), Part 78, Family Wealth Supplement Data, 1994 (Wave XXVII), Part 201, Cross-Year Individual File, 1968-1995 (Waves I-XXVIII) [Early Release], Part 202, Family File, 1993 (Wave XXVI) [Early Release], Part 203, Family File, 1994 (Wave XXVII) [Early Release], and Part 204, Family File, 1995 (Wave XXVIII) [Early Release]. The questionnaires for Parts 203 and 204 are PDF files, while the documentation for Parts 202-204 are in ASCII format. An ASCII version of the questionnaire for Part 202 is available for downloading from the PSID website, and a PDF file of that questionnaire is being created by the PSID staff. (5) The early release files (Parts 201-204) are preliminary and should be ordered by experienced PSID users only. Documentation for these files are incomplete, and PSID staff will offer virtually no assistance with their use. ICPSR can offer only technical assistance in reading the files, and can provide no substantive advice on their use. These files will be replaced with the final version of the data and codebook when it has been completed. All but the most experienced users are asked to wait until that time to order the data. (6) Users are encouraged to check the PSID homepage at www.umich.edu/~psid/ for updates. (7) Users should note that the wealth variables previously released in Part 35, Family File, 1984 (Wave XVII), and Part 45, Family File, 1989 (Wave XXII) will not, in general (on a case-by-case basis), match the values released in Parts 76-77, the family wealth supplement data for 1984 and 1989, due to the implementation of a new missing data imputation technique. (8) The questionnaire for Part 70, Self-Administered Questionnaire Supplemental File, 1990 (Wave XXIII), is now available and is in WordPerfect 7.0 format. In addition, the data file for Part 70 has been replaced. The previous version contained null characters. (9) The codebook for Part 72, Telephone Health Care Cost Questionnaire Supplemental File, is now available, and the codebook for Part 74, Parent Health Supplement, 1991 (Wave XXIV), has been replaced. (10) The following files previously contained "high" ASCII characters. These characters have been converted to US ASCII to enable all users to read the files: Codebooks for Parts 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 17, 19, 21, 23, 33, 35, 37, 39, 41, 43, 45, 47, 51, 55, 58, and 64, the SPSS data definition statements for Part 11, and the SAS data definition statements for Parts 12, 62, 70, and 72.
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Instructional guides that utilize this dataset are available:
For Love or Money: Economic Incentives and the Marriage Decision - Econometric Society
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