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Referenda and Primary Election Materials (ICPSR 6) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

This data collection contains election returns at the county and state levels from the mid-nineteenth century to the late twentieth century for primary and general elections on statewide referenda, constitutional amendments, state House/Senate joint resolutions, and initiated measures. The ballot language of each measure is also included. County-level returns for most gubernatorial, senatorial, and congressional primary elections from 1910 to the present are documented as well.

Series: Referenda and Primary Election Data [United States] Series

Access Notes

  • These data are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Because you are not logged in, we cannot verify that you will be able to download the data.

Dataset(s)

WARNING: This study is over 150MB in size and may take several minutes to download on a typical internet connection.

DS1:  Referenda Elections for Connecticut, 1970-1990 (State 01) - Download All Files (0.9 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS2:  Referenda Elections for Maine, 1967-1990 (State 02) - Download All Files (5 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS3:  Referenda Elections for Massachusetts, 1968-1990 (State 03) - Download All Files (2.9 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS4:  Referenda Elections for New Hampshire, 1968-1990 (State 04) - Download All Files (2.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS5:  Referenda Elections for Rhode Island, 1968-1990 (State 05) - Download All Files (5.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS6:  Referenda Elections for Vermont, 1976-1986 (State 06) - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS7:  Referenda Elections for Delaware, 1976-1984 (State 11) - Download All Files (0.4 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS8:  Referenda Elections for New Jersey, 1968-1990 (State 12) - Download All Files (3.7 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS9:  Referenda Elections for New York, 1967-1990 (State 13) - Download All Files (2.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS10:  Referenda Elections for Pennsylvania, 1967-1990 (State 14) - Download All Files (1.7 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS11:  Referenda Elections for Illinois, 1968-1990 (State 21) - Download All Files (1.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS12:  Referenda Elections for Indiana, 1968-1990 (State 22) - Download All Files (0.9 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS13:  Referenda Elections for Michigan, 1968-1988 (State 23) - Download All Files (2.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS14:  Referenda Elections for Ohio, 1967-1990 (State 24) - Download All Files (2.6 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS15:  Referenda Elections for Wisconsin, 1967-1990 (State 25) - Download All Files (2.1 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS16:  Referenda Elections for Iowa, 1968-1990 (State 31) - Download All Files (0.8 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS17:  Referenda Elections for Kansas, 1968-1990 (State 32) - Download All Files (3.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS18:  Referenda Elections for Minnesota, 1968-1990 (State 33) - Download All Files (1.1 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS19:  Referenda Elections for Missouri, 1968-1990 (State 34) - Download All Files (3.1 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS20:  Referenda Elections for Nebraska, 1860-1990 (State 35) - Download All Files (5.4 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS21:  Referenda Elections for North Dakota, 1968-1990 (State 36) - Download All Files (3.9 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS22:  Referenda Elections for South Dakota, 1968-1990 (State 37) - Download All Files (3.1 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS23:  Referenda Elections for Alabama, 1968-1990 (State 41) - Download All Files (6.5 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS24:  Referenda Elections for Arkansas, 1968-1990 (State 42) - Download All Files (2.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS25:  Referenda Elections for Florida, 1968-1990 (State 43) - Download All Files (2.9 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS26:  Referenda Elections for Georgia, 1968-1990 (State 44) - Download All Files (7.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS27:  Referenda Elections for Louisiana, 1968-1990 (State 45) - Download All Files (8.5 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS28:  Referenda Elections for Mississippi, 1968-1990 (State 46) - Download All Files (2.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS29:  Referenda Elections for North Carolina, 1968-1990 (State 47) - Download All Files (1.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS30:  Referenda Elections for South Carolina, 1968-1990 (State 48) - Download All Files (2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS31:  Referenda Elections for Texas, 1968-1990 (State 49) - Download All Files (6.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS32:  Referenda Elections for Virginia, 1968-1990 (State 40) - Download All Files (1.6 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS33:  Referenda Elections for Kentucky, 1970-1990 (State 51) - Download All Files (1.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS34:  Referenda Elections for Maryland, 1968-1990 (State 52) - Download All Files (3.1 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS35:  Referenda Elections for Oklahoma, 1968-1990 (State 53) - Download All Files (5.2 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS36:  Referenda Elections for Tennessee, 1968-1982 (State 54) - Download All Files (0.7 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS37:  Referenda Elections for West Virginia, 1968-1990 (State 56) - Download All Files (1.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS38:  Referenda Elections for Arizona, 1968-1990 (State 61) - Download All Files (4.5 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS39:  Referenda Elections for Colorado, 1968-1990 (State 62) - Download All Files (2.6 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS40:  Referenda Elections for Idaho, 1968-1990 (State 63) - Download All Files (2.3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS41:  Referenda Elections for Montana, 1968-1990 (State 64) - Download All Files (2.5 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS42:  Referenda Elections for Nevada, 1968-1990 (State 65) - Download All Files (3 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS43:  Referenda Elections for New Mexico, 1968-1990 (State 66) - Download All Files (2.4 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS44:  Referenda Elections for Utah, 1968-1990 (State 67) - Download All Files (1.9 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS45:  Referenda Elections for Wyoming, 1968-1990 (State 68) - Download All Files (1.4 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS46:  Referenda Elections for California, 1968-1990 (State 71) - Download All Files (17.5 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS47:  Referenda Elections for Oregon, 1968-1990 (State 72) - Download All Files (6.1 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS48:  Referenda Elections for Washington, 1968-1990 (State 73) - Download All Files (6 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS49:  Referenda Elections for Alaska, 1968-1990 (State 81) - Download All Files (3.7 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS50:  Referenda Elections for Hawaii, 1968-1990 (State 82) - Download All Files (3.4 MB)
Documentation:
Data:
ASCII
ASCII + SPSS Setup
DS51:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Connecticut, 1970-1990 (State 01) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS52:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Maine, 1967-1990 (State 02) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS53:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Massachusetts, 1968-1990 (State 03) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS54:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for New Hampshire, 1968-1990 (State 04) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS55:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Rhode Island, 1968-1990 (State 05) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS56:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Vermont, 1976-1986 (State 06) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS57:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Delaware, 1976-1984 (State 11) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS58:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for New Jersey, 1968-1990 (State 12) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS59:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for New York, 1967-1990 (State 13) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS60:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Pennsylvania, 1967-1990 (State 14) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS61:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Illinois, 1968-1990 (State 21) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS62:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Indiana, 1968-1990 (State 22) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS63:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Michigan, 1968-1988 (State 23) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS64:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Ohio, 1967-1990 (State 24) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS65:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Wisconsin, 1967-1990 (State 25) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS66:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Iowa, 1968-1990 (State 31) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS67:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Kansas, 1968-1990 (State 32) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS68:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Minnesota, 1968-1990 (State 33) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS69:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Missouri, 1968-1990 (State 34) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS70:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Nebraska, 1860-1990 (State 35) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS71:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for North Dakota, 1968-1990 (State 36) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS72:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for South Dakota, 1968-1990 (State 37) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS73:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Alabama, 1968-1990 (State 41) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS74:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Arkansas, 1968-1990 (State 42) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS75:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Florida, 1968-1990 (State 43) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS76:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Georgia, 1968-1990 (State 44) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS77:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Louisiana, 1968-1990 (State 45) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS78:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Mississippi, 1968-1990 (State 46) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS79:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for North Carolina, 1968-1990 (State 47) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS80:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for South Carolina, 1968-1990 (State 48) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS81:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Texas, 1968-1990 (State 49) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS82:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Virginia, 1968-1990 (State 40) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS83:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Kentucky, 1970-1990 (State 51) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS84:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Maryland, 1968-1990 (State 52) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS85:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Oklahoma, 1968-1990 (State 53) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS86:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Tennessee, 1968-1982 (State 54) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS87:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for West Virginia, 1968-1990 (State 56) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS88:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Arizona, 1968-1990 (State 61) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS89:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Colorado, 1968-1990 (State 62) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS90:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Idaho, 1968-1990 (State 63) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS91:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Montana, 1968-1990 (State 64) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS92:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Nevada, 1968-1990 (State 65) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS93:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for New Mexico, 1968-1990 (State 66) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS94:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Utah, 1968-1990 (State 67) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS95:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Wyoming, 1968-1990 (State 68) - Download All Files (0 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS96:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for California, 1968-1990 (State 71) - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS97:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Oregon, 1968-1990 (State 72) - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS98:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Washington, 1968-1990 (State 73) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS99:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Alaska, 1968-1990 (State 81) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS100:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Referenda Elections for Hawaii, 1968-1990 (State 82) - Download All Files (0.1 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup

Study Description

Citation

Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research. REFERENDA AND PRIMARY ELECTION MATERIALS. ICPSR ed. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [producer and distributor], 1995. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00006.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   congressional elections (US House), congressional elections (US Senate), congressional voting, constitutional amendments, counties, election returns, gubernatorial elections, nineteenth century, political history, primaries, referendum, senatorial elections, states (USA), twentieth century, voting behavior

Geographic Coverage:   Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming

Data Types:   aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

Most of the information for this collection is available ONLY in typed and photocopied form. The exception is statewide referenda data from 1968 to 1990, which ICPSR has converted into machine-readable form. Included in this portion of the collection are the county vote breakdowns for approximately 4,241 referenda voted upon in primary and general elections throughout the United States. A typed hardcopy codebook accompanies each state file. The primary election data are NOT available in machine-readable form. It is possible to supply, on a cost basis, limited portions of the referenda and primary election returns that are not machine-readable in the form of photocopies.

Methodology

Data Source:

official election returns provided by state governments

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Standardized missing values.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Related Publications (see Notes)

Variables

Utilities

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