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ANES 1994 Time Series Study (ICPSR 6507)

Alternate Title:  American National Election Study, 1994: Post-Election Survey [Enhanced with 1992 and 1993 Data]

Principal Investigator(s):


This study is part of a time-series collection of national surveys fielded continuously since 1948. The election studies are designed to present data on Americans' social backgrounds, enduring political predispositions, social and political values, perceptions and evaluations of groups and candidates, opinions on public policy issues, and participation in political life. The 1994 National Election Study is a post-election interview in which approximately 42 percent of the cases are empaneled respondents first interviewed in the ANES 1992 TIME SERIES STUDY (ICPSR 6067) and later in the ANES 1993 PANEL STUDY (ICPSR 6264). The other 58 percent of the cases are a freshly drawn cross-section sample. The panel component of the study focuses on the special features of the 1992-1994 elections: a minority president struggling to forge a majority coalition in the face of a strong third-party challenge, and the replacement in 1992 of fully one-quarter of the House of Representatives. Coming at the end of this period, the 1994 National Election Study provides insights into how electoral coalitions form and decay, and how members of the House who were newly-elected in 1992 managed, or failed to secure their districts. The study design themes became especially salient in the aftermath of the November 8 election, when control of the Congress shifted to the Republican Party for the first time since 1952. Survey questions included the standard National Election Studies battery of congressional evaluations supplemented by questions on term limits, the respondents' representatives' votes on President Bill Clinton's crime bill, and whether respondents felt that their representatives cared more about their own prestige and influence than about solving the problems of their congressional districts. The content of the 1994 Election Study reflects its dual purpose, both as the traditional presidential election year time-series data collection and as the third wave of a panel study. In addition to the standard demographic items, respondents were asked about their opinions on the following substantive themes: interest in the campaign, media exposure, presidential performance evaluation, measures of partisanship (party likes/dislikes and party identification), which party would better handle certain public problems, summary evaluations (feeling thermometers) on major political figures and social groups, and recent voting behavior. Respondents were also asked about their views on issues such as defense spending, assistance to Blacks, the trade-off between spending and services, health insurance, the role of women, recent proposals to reform welfare, preferences on federal budget allocations, and evaluations of past and prospective economic trends. They were also queried on the extent of their participation in the campaign and their values regarding egalitarianism, attitudes toward race, school prayer, and abortion.

Series: American National Election Study (ANES) Series

Access Notes

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Study Description


Rosenstone, Steven J., Donald R. Kinder, Warren E. Miller, and University of Michigan. Institute for Social Research. American National Election Studies. ANES 1994 Time Series Study. ICPSR06507-v3. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2016-09-16. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06507.v3

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (SOC77-08885, SES-8207580, SES-8341310, SES-8808361, and SBR-9317631)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   abortion, candidates, Clinton Administration (1993-2001), congressional elections, crime, domestic policy, economic conditions, government performance, government spending, media coverage, national elections, political affiliation, political attitudes, political campaigns, political efficacy, political elites, political participation, political partisanship, presidential elections, presidential performance, public approval, public opinion, racial attitudes, school prayer, trust in government, voter history, voting behavior, welfare services

Smallest Geographic Unit:   congressional district

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1992--1994

Date of Collection:  

  • 1992-09-01--1992-11-03
  • 1992-11-04--1993-01-13
  • 1993-09-23--1993-11-24
  • 1994-11-09--1995-01-09

Unit of Observation:   individual

Universe:   All United States citizens of voting age on or before November 3, 1992 (for those interviewed in 1992 and 1993), or on or before November 8, 1994 (for those interviewed in 1994), residing in housing units other than on military reservations in the 48 coterminous states.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

A total of 1,795 citizens were interviewed in the nine weeks after the November 8, 1994, election. Forty percent of these interviews were completed during the first week, and 68 percent were completed by the end of the third week. Of the total 1,795 respondents, 759 had been initially interviewed in the 1992 Time Series Study, and 635 of these 759 panel respondents had also been re-interviewed (by telephone) in the 1993 Pilot Study. Variables from 1992 and 1993 have been padded with missing data values for all 1994 cross-section respondents.

For further information please see the ANES Data Center Web site.


Sample:   National multistage area probability sample.

Time Method:   Longitudinal: Panel: Interval , Time Series: Discrete

Weight:   Weight variables are: V940004, V940005, V940006, and V940006A. V940004 and V940005 are the weights originally provided with the 1994 Time Series final data release. V940004 was created for optional use with the full sample data, incorporating a household non-response adjustment factor, the within-household selection weight, and a post-stratification factor by age, sex, and region. Panel weight V940005 was constructed for longitudinal analysis when using only the panel component of the 1994 sample. In addition, for users comparing either the panel cases or the total sample to previous unweighted studies, the "time series" weight V940006 was added to the release to adjust for panel aging and attrition only. In 1997, V940006A was constructed as an additional full sample weight to correct for an under-representation of younger and less educated respondents, and the resulting contribution to voting overestimation, which were discovered as a consequence of the long-term empanelment across the Time Series studies 1992-1994-1996 (similar weighting was also constructed for the 1996 Time Series study). V940006A adjusts for household non-response, weights for within-household selection, and is post-stratified by age and education. NOTE: it is not intended that analysis be undertaken using the 1994 fresh cross component alone.

Mode of Data Collection:   face-to-face interview, telephone interview

Response Rates:   The 1994 sample consisted of two components. The 1994 panel component included all fresh cross-section respondents from the 1992 Time Series study (respondents first interviewed in 1992) who had provided both pre-election and post-election interviews in 1992, for a total of 1,005 panel eligible cases. The 1994 fresh cross-section component provided an additional 1,436 eligible cases. The 1994 eligible total of 2,441 cases yielded 1,795 completions (759 panel, 1,036 fresh cross-section).

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2016-09-16 The SPSS and SAS setup files as well as the SPSS system file and the SAS transport file were updated. Stata setups and a Stata system file, a tab-delimited data file, and an R data file were added to the collection. The codebook was updated.
  • 2015-11-10 The study metadata was updated.
  • 1999-09-15 The data for this study are now available in SAS transport and SPSS export formats, in addition to the ASCII data file. Variables in the dataset have been renumbered to the following format: 2-digit (or 2-character) year prefix + 4 digits + [optional] 1-character suffix. Dataset ID and version variables have also been added.

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