National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

National Survey of Community Policing Strategies, 1992-1993 (ICPSR 6485)

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

The primary objective of this national study was to gather reliable information on the extent to which the concept of community policing had been adopted by law enforcement agencies across the country. As a program evaluation, the survey also sought to provide information on what was happening and what needed to happen within the law enforcement community with respect to the development and implementation of community policing. Following a pretest of the questionnaire, a survey package was mailed to the chief executive of each selected agency in May 1993. To minimize the number of unresolved cases and reduce the potential nonresponse bias, four follow-up contacts were made with agencies that had not responded by various stages of the data collection process. Part 1 examines the chief executive's views about community policing. Part 2 contains data on the agency's current situation, resources used, and types of police training needed in the implementation of community policing. Agencies that had implemented or planned to implement community policing identified various written policies or legislation that had been developed. Agencies that had been implementing community policing for more than one year assessed the effects of community policing. All respondents indicated programs and organizational arrangements that their agencies had in place or planned to develop, identified who in their agencies performed various community policing activities, and examined their agencies' current or planned community involvement with various activities and programs. Demographic data include the agency's sworn and civilian personnel size, number assigned to patrol and investigative divisions, size of jurisdiction served, and whether the agency provided 24-hour patrol service. The unit of analysis for the chief executive data is the individual chief executive of the agency. The unit of analysis for the agency data is the agency.

Access Notes

  • This study is currently not available. Additional information may be available in Data Collection Notes.

    A list of law enforcement agencies that participated in this survey can be obtained from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS).

Study Description

Citation

Annan, Sampson O. NATIONAL SURVEY OF COMMUNITY POLICING STRATEGIES, 1992-1993. ICPSR version. Washington, DC: The Police Foundation [producer], 1994. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1995. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06485.v1

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Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (91-U-CX-K008)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   community policing, law enforcement agencies, program evaluation

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1992--1993

Date of Collection:  

  • 1993-05--1993-11

Unit of Observation:   The unit of analysis for the chief executive data is the individual chief executive of the agency. The unit of analysis for the agency data is the agency.

Universe:   All law enforcement agencies that perform patrol duties in the United States as listed in the 1990 Justice Agency List, excluding state police agencies, special police agencies, and agencies with less than five sworn personnel.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

A list of law enforcement agencies that participated in this survey can be obtained from the National Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS).

Methodology

Study Purpose:   Community policing is a general concept that stresses a closer working relationship between police and the citizens they serve. This evolving concept involves reforming decision-making processes and creating new cultures within law enforcement agencies. The primary objective of this national study was to gather reliable information on the extent to which the concept of community policing had been adopted by law enforcement agencies across the country. As a program evaluation, the survey also sought to provide information on what was happening and what needed to happen within the law enforcement community with respect to the development and implementation of community policing.

Study Design:   Following a pretest of the questionnaire, a survey package containing a questionnaire, a cover letter, a postcard, and a self-addressed, stamped envelope was mailed to the chief executive of each of the 2,314 selected agencies in May 1993. The first follow-up was conducted in June 1993, about three weeks after the initial mailing. A follow-up letter, designed as a "thank you" to agencies that had already mailed the questionnaire and a reminder to the other agencies that had not, was faxed to most of the approximately 2,000 agencies that had not yet responded. The letter was mailed to agencies that could not receive a fax. About nine weeks after the initial mailing, a second survey package, including a new cover letter, a questionnaire, and a self-addressed, stamped envelope, was mailed to 1,217 agencies that had not responded to the initial mailing or the subsequent follow-up letter. About six weeks after the second follow-up mailing, a third follow-up was conducted that consisted of a short letter emphasizing the importance of the study and encouraging participation. In addition to the letter, a response form was designed to allow the nonresponding agencies to respond to the survey without necessarily completing the questionnaire. Respondents were requested to check one of five response status categories on the form. The letter and response form were faxed to the nonresponding agencies in September 1993, and mailed to agencies that could not receive a fax. Agencies were requested to fax back the response form after checking the appropriate box. To further minimize the number of unresolved cases and reduce the potential nonresponse bias, a fourth and final follow-up was conducted about six weeks after the third follow-up. The same letter and response form used in the third follow-up were sent to approximately 580 agencies from whom no final response had been received.

Sample:   A stratified random sample of 2,337 law enforcement agencies was selected from the universe of 11,824 agencies, designed to select larger agencies at higher rates than smaller agencies.

Data Source:

self-enumerated questionnaires

Description of Variables:   Section One of the survey examined the chief executive's views about community policing. It consisted of twenty-one questions statements about community policing with which the chief executive could agree or disagree. Through eleven more questions, the respondent assessed the impact or potential impact of implementing community policing. The respondent was also asked who should be responsible for implementing community policing within the agency. Sections Two through Nine could be completed by someone other than the chief executive. Respondents were asked about the agency's current situation, resources used, and types of police training needed in the implementation of community policing. For agencies that had implemented or planned to implement community policing, questions were asked regarding whether various written policies or legislation had been developed. For agencies that had been implementing community policing for more than one year, the respondent assessed the effects of community policing. Respondents indicated which programs or practices their agencies had implemented or planned to implement and identified various organizational arrangements or structures that their agencies had in place or planned to develop. Respondents also indicated who in the agency performed various community policing activities. Data were also collected on the authority and responsibility of mid-level field operation managers for various activities. Fifteen items examined in detail the agency's current or planned community involvement with various activities and programs. Demographic information includes the agency's sworn and civilian personnel size, number of people assigned to patrol and investigative divisions, size of jurisdiction served, and whether the agency provided 24-hour patrol service.

Response Rates:   Response rates for this survey were calculated by dividing the number of completed questionnaires by the sample size minus the 23 ineligible units. These figures were considered conservative, since some nonresponding agencies might also have been out-of-scope but their status could not be determined before the end of the data collection period. The response rates by type of agency were: municipal police - 75.6 percent, county police - 81.2 percent, county sheriff - 60.7 percent. The overall response rate was 71.3 percent.

Presence of Common Scales:   Several Likert-like scales were used.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed consistency checks.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 3 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.

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