National Archive of Criminal Justice Data

This dataset is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Criminal Justice Data (NACJD), the criminal justice archive within ICPSR. NACJD is primarily sponsored by three agencies within the U.S. Department of Justice: the Bureau of Justice Statistics, the National Institute of Justice, and the Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.

Community Policing in Madison, Wisconsin: Evaluation of Implementation and Impact, 1987-1990 (ICPSR 6480) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):

Summary:

This study sought to evaluate the Madison, Wisconsin, Police Department's creation of a new organizational design (both structural and managerial) that was intended to support community-oriented and problem-oriented policing. One-sixth of the organization serving approximately one-sixth of the community was used as a test site for the new community policing approach. This Experimental Police District (EPD) was charged with implementing "quality policing," which emphasized quality of service delivery, quality of life in the community, and quality of life in the workplace. For the first part of the program evaluation, attitude changes among officers working in the EPD were compared with those of officers working in the rest of the police department. Part 1, Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 1, contains responses from 269 commissioned personnel surveyed in December 1987, before the creation of the EPD. Part 2, Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 2, consists of responses from 264 police officers who completed a Wave 2 survey in December 1988, and Part 3, Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 3, supplies responses from 230 police officers who completed a Wave 3 survey in December 1989. Although the analysis was to be based on a panel design, efforts were made to survey all commissioned personnel during each survey administration period. Police personnel provided their assessments on how successfully quality leadership had been implemented, the extent to which they worked closely with and received feedback from other officers, the amount of their interaction with detectives, the amount of time available for problem-solving, ease of arranging schedules, safety of working conditions, satisfaction with working conditions, type of work they performed, their supervisor, commitment to the department, attitudes related to community policing and problem-solving, perception of their relationship with the community, views of human nature, attitudes toward change, attitudes toward decentralization, and demographic information. As the second part of the program evaluation, attitude changes among residents served by the EPD were compared with those of residents in the rest of the city. These data are presented in Part 4, Residents Data, Waves 1 and 2. Data for Wave 1 consist of personal interviews with a random sample of 1,166 Madison residents in February and March 1988, prior to the opening of the EPD station. During the second wave, Wave 1 respondents were interviewed by telephone in February and March 1990. Residents provided their perceptions of police presence, frequency and quality of police-citizen contacts, estimates of the magnitude of various problems in their neighborhoods, evaluation of the problem-solving efforts of the police, perception of neighborhood conditions, levels of fear of crime, personal experience of victimization, knowledge of victimization of other residents, and demographic information.

Access Notes

  • These data are freely available.

Dataset(s)

DS1:  Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 1 - Download All Files (2 MB)
DS2:  Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 2 - Download All Files (2.4 MB)
DS3:  Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 3 - Download All Files (2.6 MB)
DS4:  Residents Data, Waves 1 and 2 - Download All Files (5.7 MB)
Documentation:
DS5:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 1 - Download All Files (0.2 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS6:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 2 - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS7:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 3 - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS8:  SAS Data Definition Statements for Residents Data, Waves 1 and 2 - Download All Files (0.3 MB)
Data:

ASCII + SAS Setup
DS9:  User Guide
Documentation:
Download:
No downloadable data files available.

Study Description

Citation

Wycoff, Mary Ann, and Wesley G. Skogan. Community Policing in Madison, Wisconsin: Evaluation of Implementation and Impact, 1987-1990. ICPSR06480-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1996. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR06480.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Funding

This study was funded by:

  • United States Department of Justice. Office of Justice Programs. National Institute of Justice (87-IJ-CX-0062)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   attitudes, community policing, neighborhoods, police citizen interactions, police community relations, police departments, program evaluation, quality of life

Geographic Coverage:   Madison, United States, Wisconsin

Time Period:  

  • 1987--1990

Unit of Observation:   Individuals.

Universe:   Police officers in the Madison Police Department and residents of the city of Madison, Wisconsin.

Data Types:   survey data

Methodology

Study Purpose:   This study sought to evaluate efforts by the Madison, Wisconsin, Police Department to create a new organizational design (both structural and managerial) to support community-oriented and problem-oriented policing that would result in better, more responsive service to the community. The department's plan was a sequential one: internal organizational changes were necessary before the external goal of improved service could be accomplished. One-sixth of the organization serving approximately one-sixth of the community was used as a test site for the new approach. This Experimental Police District (EPD) was charged with implementing "quality policing," which emphasized quality of service delivery, quality of life in the community, and quality of life in the workplace. The first objective of the Madison Police Department was the implementation of three conditions: (1) quality leadership, emphasizing the role of managers as facilitators whose job was to improve systems, involve employees in decision-making, employ data-based problem-solving approaches, promote teamwork, encourage risk-taking and creativity, and give and receive feedback from employees, (2) a healthy work environment, treating employees as "internal customers" whose problems should be identified and resolved, and (3) physical decentralization, creating a small work group to improve conditions in the workplace and, at the same time, obtain closer physical proximity to citizens to get to know them and become aware of their problems. The researchers' task was to: (1) document the process of developing the Experimental Police District, (2) measure any attitude changes of the police personnel during the experimental period, and (3) measure the effects of change on the community.

Study Design:   As the first part of the program evaluation, attitude changes among officers working in the EPD were compared with those of officers working in the rest of the police department. Written surveys were administered by the Project Director to small groups of personnel during normal working hours. Although the analysis was to be based on a panel design, efforts were made to survey all commissioned personnel during each survey administration period. Since the ultimate goal of the department was change across the entire organization, changes for the organization as a whole were also monitored. Part 1, Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 1, contains responses from 269 commissioned personnel surveyed in December 1987 before the creation of the EPD. Part 2, Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 2, consists of responses from 264 police officers who completed a Wave 2 survey in December 1988, and Part 3, Commissioned Personnel Data, Wave 3, supplies responses from 230 police officers who completed a Wave 3 survey in December 1989. As the second part of the program evaluation, attitude changes among residents served by the EPD were compared with those of residents in the rest of the city using a quasi-experimental design. These data are presented in Part 4, Residents Data, Waves 1 and 2. A few days prior to contact, letters from the Office of the Mayor were sent to the selected addresses. Interviewers who had been recruited, trained, and supervised by Police Foundation personnel carried a copy of that letter and presented photo identification cards at each residence. Selection of the respondents was made by the interviewers at the selected household, using a Kish selection table included in each questionnaire. Individuals under the age of 18 were not included in the household listing. Interviewers made a total of six attempts to interview the selected respondent in each household. All refusals in which the respondent was not hostile were reassigned to different interviewers. Twenty-five percent of all completed interviews were validated by recontacting the respondent to verify that the interview took place, that it had required the appropriate amount of the respondent's time, and that a few key questions were answered the same way during the validation call as in the original contact. Data for Wave 1 consist of personal interviews with a random sample of 1,166 Madison residents in February and March 1988, prior to the opening of the EPD station. Since 97.6 percent of the respondents provided their telephone numbers, the decision was made to conduct the Wave 2 survey by telephone. The telephone interviews were conducted by the Wisconsin Survey Research Lab at the University of Wisconsin in February and March 1990. In-person interviews were also attempted with about 70 percent of the Wave 1 respondents who did not provide telephone numbers. Of the 772 completed interviews for Wave 2, 45 interviews contained substantial mismatches between information provided in 1988 and 1990. These 45 respondents were removed from the panel, leaving an analysis panel of 727 respondents.

Sample:   The EPD program site was not randomly selected, but was selected by the department, based on several indicators of need. Police officers were also not randomly assigned to work in the EPD, but were allowed to bid for assignments in the EPD. Households for the resident survey were randomly selected from the 1980 Census block statistics, excluding city blocks that consisted primarily of business areas or student housing.

Data Source:

self-enumerated questionnaires, personal interviews, and telephone interviews

Description of Variables:   Police personnel provided their assessments on how successfully quality leadership had been implemented, the extent to which the officers felt they worked closely with and received feedback from other officers, the amount of their interaction with detectives, the amount of time available for problem-solving, ease of arranging schedules, safety of working conditions, satisfaction with working conditions, type of work they performed, their supervisors, commitment to the department, attitudes related to community policing and problem-solving, perception of their relationship with the community, police views of human nature, attitudes toward change, attitudes toward decentralization, and demographic information. Residents provided their perceptions of police presence, frequency of police-citizen contacts, quality of police-citizen contacts, estimates of the magnitude of various problems in their neighborhoods, evaluation of the problem-solving efforts of the police, perception of neighborhood conditions, levels of fear of crime, personal experience of victimization, knowledge of victimization of other residents, and demographic information.

Response Rates:   For the police personnel surveys, 97 percent of the total commissioned personnel in the Madison Police Department participated in the employee survey in 1987, 97 percent participated in 1988, and 86 percent participated in 1989. Of the respondents to the Wave I survey, 14 had left the department by the time of the third survey. Two hundred and two persons participated in all three survey waves, resulting in a participation rate of 79 percent for the panel. Some personnel changes occurred after the first year of the evaluation period, resulting in an analysis panel equivalent to 61 percent of the total sworn personnel at any one of the three survey times. Participation rates are provided rather than response rates because at each survey period, a very small number of individuals came to the survey site and completed a survey identification form, but did not actually complete the survey. For the resident survey, the response rate in the EPD area was 77.8 percent and 75.1 percent for the rest of the city. The 772 interviews completed for Wave 2 resulted in a panel completion rate of 66.2 percent.

Presence of Common Scales:   Several Likert-type scales were used.

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2005-11-04 On 2005-03-14 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-11-04 to reflect these additions.

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