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The Mannheim Eurobarometer Trend File, 1970-2002 (ICPSR 4357)

Principal Investigator(s): Schmitt, Hermann, Mannheimer Zentrum fur Europaische Sozialforschung; Scholz, Evi, Zentrum fur Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen


The Mannheim Eurobarometer Trend File, a collaborative effort between the Mannheimer Zentrum fur Europaische Sozialforschung (MZES) and the Zentrum fur Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen (ZUMA), combined the most important trend questions of the Eurobarometer surveys conducted between 1970 and 2002. The file consisted of 105 trend questions asked at least five times in standard Eurobarometer surveys. A total of 1,134,384 respondents from 15 European Union member nations (initially, six European Community nations) plus Norway in some years were interviewed in these surveys. The cumulative trend questions concentrated on the respondents' knowledge and opinions of the European Community (EC)/European Union (EU). Respondents were asked for their opinion regarding European unification and whether or not they were satisfied with the speed of regional integration. Respondents were also asked to describe their sentiments with respect to citizenship and whether they identified themselves more as a citizen of their home country or as a citizen of Europe. The surveys also asked questions regarding EC/EU institutions such as the European Parliament (EP), the European Commission, the European Court of Justice, and the European Central Bank, among others. Respondents were asked whether they had heard about EC/EU institutions, the importance of these institutions, and whether or not they believed these institutions to be trustworthy. The surveys addressed several other issues of economy, society, and polity including the overall state of the economy in the EU and its individual member states, the respondents' overall satisfaction with their lives, whether certain policy decisions should be made at the EU or national level, the importance of European Parliamentary elections, recent voting behavior, voter intentions, party preferences, whether respondents discussed political matters, whether they attempted to persuade others close to them to share their views on subjects they held strong opinions about, and how they viewed the need for societal change. Respondents were asked how closely they followed various news and by which media they received the news, how much they supported different types of political and social movements, and what they believed was the probability of strikes and world war in the next ten years. Demographic and other background information collected included the respondents' age, gender, and marital status, the number of people residing in the household, the number of children under 15 in the household, respondent's age at completion of education, left-right political self-placement, occupation, religion, subjective social class, political party affiliation, trade union membership, household income, region of residence, and subjective size of community.

Series: Eurobarometer Survey Series

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


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Study Description


Schmitt, Hermann, and Evi Scholz. THE MANNHEIM EUROBAROMETER TREND FILE, 1970-2002. Prepared by Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung. ICPSR04357-v1. Mannheim, Germany: Mannheimer Zentrum fur Europaische Sozialforschung and Zentrum fur Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen [producers], 2005. Cologne, Germany: Zentralarchiv fur Empirische Sozialforschung/Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2005-12-06. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04357.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04357.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    activism, citizenship, democracy, economic conditions, economic integration, European Economic Community, European Parliament, European unification, European Union, life satisfaction, national interests, parliamentary elections, policy, political attitudes, public opinion, quality of life, social attitudes, social change, trust in government, voting behavior

Smallest Geographic Unit:    country

Geographic Coverage:    Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1970--2002

Date of Collection:   

  • 1970--2002

Unit of Observation:    individual

Universe:    Persons aged 15 and over residing in the EU (previously EC) member countries and in Norway.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) The files included with this release of the collection derive from the data producers, Mannheimer Zentrum fur Europaische Sozialforschung (MZES) and Zentrum fur Umfragen, Methoden und Analysen (ZUMA). (2) Errata detected in the data or documentation belonging to the first edition of the MANNHEIM EUROBAROMETER TREND FILE, 1970-1999 (ICPSR 3384) or in any of the corresponding single Eurobarometer surveys were corrected whenever possible or otherwise documented. (3) This second trend file edition (2.00) was produced under a cooperative arrangement between the Zentralarchiv fur Emprirische Sozialforschung at the University of Cologne (ZA) and MZES. Sixteen Eurobarometer surveys (52.0-57.2) covering the time period 1999-2002 were added to the trend file. The 100 trend questions of the first edition (1970-1999) were continued if available during this time period and included the documentation of variations in question wording. Furthermore, two new trends (TRUST and CITIZEN), that now meet the minimum frequency condition, were also added to the trend file. Also new to the trend file was the tech variable, EDITION, used to identify the dataset edition and version. The tech variable, NATION, was divided into NATION1 and NATION2. NATION1 corresponded exactly to the original variable, NATION, while NATION2 collapsed the separate samples for Germany (East and West) and the United Kingdom. Including the split of EPIMP into EPIMP1 and EPIMP2, the trend file now contains a total of 105 questions.


Sample:    Multistage national probability samples.

Weight:    WSAMPLE is the most basic of all three weighting factors. It adjusts distributions in the sample to those in the respective universes. WSAMPLE should be used together with id variable NATION1. As more than one sample is drawn for some nations, WNATION is used to adjust distributions to those in the respective nations. Note that WSAMPLE and WNATION only differ for the United Kingdom and, in later surveys, for Germany. WNATION should be used together with ID variable, NATION2. WEURO adjusts the size of national samples to the size of national populations relative to one another. This weight is used when the European Community/European Union is analyzed as an entity rather than its constituent nations or regions.

Mode of Data Collection:    face-to-face interview

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   2005-12-06

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