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Varshney-Wilkinson Dataset on Hindu-Muslim Violence in India, 1950-1995, Version 2 (ICPSR 4342)

Principal Investigator(s): Varshney, Ashutosh, University of Michigan; Wilkinson, Steven, Duke University


This data collection provides comprehensive data on all Hindu-Muslim riots reported in the major Indian newspaper of record (THE TIMES of India, Bombay edition), from January 1950 through December 1995. The dataset includes information on location (town, village, state, district, country), casualties, duration, reported causes, official involvement, policing arrangements, and other characteristics.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


Dataset - Download All Files (1.583 MB)

Study Description


Varshney, Ashutosh, and Steven Wilkinson. Varshney-Wilkinson Dataset on Hindu-Muslim Violence in India, 1950-1995, Version 2. ICPSR04342-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2006-02-17. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04342.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04342.v1

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This study was funded by:

  • Rajiv Gandhi Foundation (India)
  • Harvard University. Weatherhead Center for International Affairs
  • Ford Foundation

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    civil disorders, Hindus, India, Muslims, riots, violence

Geographic Coverage:    India, Pakistan, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1950-01--1995-12

Date of Collection:   

  • 1993--1996

Unit of Observation:    riot event

Universe:    All Hindu-Muslim riots reported in every issue of THE TIMES of India (Bombay) from 1950 through 1995

Data Type(s):    event/transaction data

Data Collection Notes:

(1) This is the only version of this data collection to be released through ICPSR. For details about the earlier version contact the principal investigators directly. (2) The current data are being released as an Excel file due to the fact that further processing would truncate valuable information contained in the data. (3) These data are being released as is. Minimal processing was performed. (4) If the user chooses to enhance the file, please submit the enhancements to ICPSR for inclusion in the collection.


Mode of Data Collection:    record abstracts

Data Source:

THE TIMES of India (Bombay edition), 1950-1995


Original ICPSR Release:   2006-02-17

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