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Norwegian Ecological Data, 1868-1903 (ICPSR 41)

Principal Investigator(s): Aarebrot, Frank; Kuhnle, Stein


This data collection provides economic, social, political, and demographic information on 431 communes (or electoral parishes) of Norway in the period 1868-1903. There are four parts to this collection. Part 1 contains information from the censuses of 1875, 1891, and 1900 and the electoral censuses of 1868 and 1876 on occupation, income distribution, taxation, age, household, total population by sex, place of birth, and religious affiliation, and information about political participation, such as the number of eligible voters, registered votes, and votes cast in the Storting (unicameral parliament) elections of 1868, 1870, 1873, 1876, 1879, 1882, 1885, 1888, 1891, 1894, 1897, 1900 and 1903. Part 2 provides information from the educational censuses of 1875 and 1885 on school enrollment, the number of male and female teachers, and school expenditures. Part 3 provides information on births, miscarriages, deaths, the number of live births from unwed mothers, the number of married couples, and the number of persons emigrating overseas and to the United States in 1868, 1875, 1891 to 1895, 1896 to 1900, and 1901 to 1905. Part 4 provides information on inter-communal communication and transportation, such as railways and steamships.

Access Notes

  • Data in this collection are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Please log in so we can determine if you are with a member institution and have access to these data files.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  Part 1 Data - Download All Files (5.435 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   
DS2:  Part 2 Data - Download All Files (4.348 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   
DS3:  Part 3 Data - Download All Files (4.101 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   
DS4:  Part 4 Data - Download All Files (4.025 MB)
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup   

Study Description


Aarebrot, Frank, and Stein Kuhnle. Norwegian Ecological Data, 1868-1903. ICPSR00041-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2009-02-20. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00041.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR00041.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    birth rates, census data, communes, education, education expenditures, emigration, election returns, elections, electoral census, enrollments, households, income distribution, mortality rates, nineteenth century, occupations, parliamentary elections, political attitudes, political participation, political parties, population, religious affiliation, school age children, taxes, teachers, transportation, unwed mothers, voters, voter turnout

Geographic Coverage:    Europe, Norway, Global

Time Period:   

  • 1868--1903

Universe:    Communes in Norway in the period 1868 to 1903.

Data Type(s):    census data, and aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

The data maps are provided as ASCII text files, and the codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Data Source:

Censuses of Norway, 1868, 1875, 1876, 1885, 1891, and 1900, and Norwegian Storting (parliamentary) elections of 1868, 1970, 1873, 1876, 1879, 1882, 1885, 1888, 1891, 1894, 1897, 1900, and 1903

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   1984-06-20

Version History:

  • 2006-01-12 All files were removed from dataset 5 and flagged as study-level files, so that they will accompany all downloads.



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