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National Samples from the Census of Manufacturing: 1850, 1860, and 1870 (ICPSR 4048)

Principal Investigator(s):


This collection presents information from the census of manufacturing in states and the District of Columbia. It was constructed from the STATE SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4071). The data were originally collected to paint a quantitative picture of industrialization in the United States without the need to weight the results. The data describe states and counties in terms of amount of capital invested and numbers of male, female, and child workers employed. Additional information includes daily wages for men, women, and children, annual wage bill, number of waterwheels and steam engines, and horsepower by water or steam.

Access Notes

  • These data are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Because you are not logged in, we cannot verify that you will be able to download these data.


DS0:  Study-Level Files
DS1:  National Sample for 1850 - Download All Files (7.6 MB)
DS2:  National Sample for 1860 - Download All Files (7.5 MB)
DS3:  National Sample for 1870 - Download All Files (7.4 MB)

Study Description


Atack, Jeremy, Fred Bateman, and Thomas Weiss. National Samples from the Census of Manufacturing: 1850, 1860, and 1870. ICPSR04048-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2004. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR04048.v1

Persistent URL:

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Science Foundation (NSF: GS-2450, GS-2456, SOC 75-18917, SOC 75-20034)
  • University of Illinois. Campus Research Board

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   census data, historical data, industrialization, manufacturing, nineteenth century, wages and salaries, workers

Smallest Geographic Unit:   city

Geographic Coverage:   United States

Time Period:  

  • 1850--1870

Unit of Observation:   manufacturing establishment/plant

Universe:   United States and territories for which records were extant.

Data Types:   aggregate data

Data Collection Notes:

The basic data for 1850-1870 were collected by Fred Bateman and Thomas Weiss with underwriting from the National Science Foundation under grants GS-2450, GS-2456, SOC 75-18917 and SOC 75-20034. The 1850-1870 data have subsequently been supplemented and extended by Jeremy Atack and Bateman in order to permit creation of the national samples.

These data can be analyzed at the national and/or regional level, but not the state level. For state-level analyses, use the data available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING: 1850, 1860, AND 1870 (ICPSR 4071).

State data for 1880 are available as STATE SAMPLES FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING (ICPSR 9384).

National data for 1880 are available as NATIONAL SAMPLE FROM THE 1880 CENSUS OF MANUFACTURING (ICPSR 9385).

The principal investigators request that the source of these data be credited and that authors using these data send a file copy of their work to Jeremy Atack at Vanderbilt University.


Sample:   Random samples from the U.S. Census.

Data Source:

Bureau of the Census documents


Original ICPSR Release:  

Version History:

  • 2006-03-30 File CB4048.ALL.PDF was removed from any previous datasets and flagged as a study-level file, so that it will accompany all downloads.
  • 2005-12-15 On 2005-08-15 new files were added to one or more datasets. These files included additional setup files as well as one or more of the following: SAS program, SAS transport, SPSS portable, and Stata system files. The metadata record was revised 2005-12-15 to reflect these additions.

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