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Survey of Russian Elites, 1999: [Moscow, Russia] (ICPSR 3724) RSS

Principal Investigator(s):


These data were collected as part of a larger study of mass-elite interactions in post-Soviet Russia. Questions asked in this study pertain to the links between the domestic political economy and foreign policy perspectives. This particular survey focused on security problems, national and international affairs, and foreign policy. Respondents were asked their opinions about the national interests of Russia, the role of military force in international relations, the most likely threats to the stability and security of the country, establishing order in Russia, and how closely Russia should follow the route of developed countries in the future. Questions that focused on foreign policy asked respondents to rate their own influence on the decision-making process, how they learned about world and domestic events, how often they discussed such events with friends or family members, how great a threat the United States represented, attitudes toward military aid to other countries, the expansion of NATO, the importance of various foreign policy goals, the power and role of various state organizations in influencing foreign policy, and the legality of using military force. Questions that focused on national issues included attitudes about cutting expenditures in certain social and economic spheres, the rights of individuals versus the rights of society, the role of competition, the responsibility of government to its citizens, democracy, and which political system fits Russia best. Respondents were also asked about Russia and its relations with other countries (e.g., Ukraine, Belarus, Japan, China), their attitudes about the economic environment and opening a business, feelings about work, different types of groups in the society, and their opinions about future economic conditions. Demographic items include nationality, education levels, occupations of the respondent and other family members, sex, age, country of birth, marital status, language spoken in the home, income level, household composition, political party affiliation, religion, and area of work.

Access Notes

  • These data are available only to users at ICPSR member institutions. Because you are not logged in, we cannot verify that you will be able to download the data.


DS1:  Survey of Russian Elites: 1993-2012 [Moscow, Russia], 1999 - Download All Files (4.2 MB)

Study Description


Zimmerman, William. SURVEY OF RUSSIAN ELITES, 1999: [MOSCOW, RUSSIA]. ICPSR version. Moscow, Russia: Rossiiskoye Obshchestvennyoe Mnenie i Rynok (ROMIR) [producer], 2000. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributors], 2003. http://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR03724.v1

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This study was funded by:

  • National Council for Eurasian and East European Research

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:   business elites, democracy, educational elites, elites, foreign policy, government elites, international relations, military elites, military intervention, NATO, national economy, national interests, national security, political elites, social welfare

Smallest Geographic Unit:   city

Geographic Coverage:   Moscow, Russia, Global

Time Period:  

  • 1999-11-04--1999-11-29

Date of Collection:  

  • 1999-11-04--1999-11-29

Unit of Observation:   individuals

Universe:   Elite members from the major public and private sectors of Russian society in Moscow.

Data Types:   survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The codebook is provided by ICPSR as a Portable Document Format (PDF) file. The PDF file format was developed by Adobe Systems Incorporated and can be accessed using PDF reader software, such as the Adobe Acrobat Reader. Information on how to obtain a copy of the Acrobat Reader is provided on the ICPSR Web site.


Sample:   Mid- and top-level officials from the following major elite groups in Moscow were interviewed: executive and legislative branches of government, mass media, scientific and educational institutions, private business, state-owned enterprises, the army, militia, and the federal security service.

Data Source:

personal interviews

Extent of Processing:  ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Performed recodes and/or calculated derived variables.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:  

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