Archives of Scientific Psychology

This dataset is made available in connection to an article in Archives of Scientific Psychology, the first open-access, open-methods journal of the American Psychological Association (APA). Archiving and dissemination of this research is part of APA's commitment to collaborative data sharing.

Millennium Cohort Study (ICPSR 36952)

Principal Investigator(s): Hammer , David, University of Wollongong; Melhuish , Edward, University of Wollongong; Howard, Steven, University of Wollongong


Socio-emotional behaviours in early childhood, including self-regulation, emotional problems, and peer problems, have been shown to individually influence academic achievement in primary and secondary school. Environmental and demographic factors have also been shown to influence a child's academic development. The current study extends previous work to consider - concurrently, using structural equation modelling - a broader array of antecedents and measures of social-emotional development to understand their relative effects on academic outcomes. Parent-report data on a nationally representative sample of children (n = 17,035) at ages 3 and 5 years, and academic assessment at age 7, were drawn from the Millennium Cohort Study for longitudinal modelling. Results indicate the individual and collective contribution of socio-emotional, environmental, and demographic antecedents, expanding the current literature on predictors of child academic achievement in primary school. The results suggest that malleable factors in early childhood are important predictors of later academic success, and thus may be viable targets for intervention.

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  • This dataset is part of ICPSR's Archives of Scientific Psychology journal database. Users should contact the Editorial Office at the American Psychological Association for information on requesting data access.


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Study Description


Hammer , David , Edward Melhuish , and Steven Howard. Millennium Cohort Study. ICPSR36952-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2017-11-06.

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Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    academic ability, academic achievement, behavior problems, child development, children, early childhood education, emotional development, emotional problems, emotional support, home environment, learning, self evaluation

Geographic Coverage:    United Kingdom

Unit of Observation:    Individual, Household

Universe:    Children born in the United Kingdom between September 2000 and August 2001.

Data Type(s):    experimental data


Sample:    The data is drawn from a random sample of electoral wards across the United Kingdom, resulting in 17,034 children born between September 2000 and August 2001. There is a slight overrepresentation of Black and Asian families. This study used data captured at 3, 5 and 7 years of age for longitudinal modeling.

Time Method:    Longitudinal

Mode of Data Collection:    computer-assisted personal interview (CAPI), computer-assisted self interview (CASI), computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI)

Data Source:

Data from the Millennium Cohorts Study (MCS) were analyzed for this manuscript, using data at 3- (MCS2), 5- (MCS3) and 7- (MCS4) years of age for longitudinal modeling. The MCS datasets are managed as part of the Centre for Longitudinal Studies, Institute of Education, University College London. Permission for use of the datasets can be attained via the UK Data Service. These data are publicly available to those who register with the UK data archive, and who agree to their conditions of use.

Description of Variables:   

Below is a description of variables used in this study. For more information on specific variables used, please see study documentation.

  • Academic Outcomes: numeracy and literacy scores at age 7 drawn from teacher-reported assessments
  • Socio-Emotional Development: maternal ratings at age 5 on the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)
  • Self-Regulation: parent ratings at age 5 using the parent-rated Children's Social Behaviour Quesionnaire (CSBQ)
  • Demographic and Contextual Antecedents: parenting style at age 3 (Parental Risk Index, PRI), parent self-reported demographics including family income, parental education level, and child's gender

Presence of Common Scales:   

Below is a description of scales used in this study. For more information on specific variables used, please see study documentation.

  • Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ): Hyperactivity and Peer Problems subscales
  • Home Learning Environment (HLE)
  • Parent Risk Index (PRI): Parent/child Conflict, Parent/child Closeness, Discipline, Home Chaos, Observer rating of mother responsivity to child, and Observer rating of mother acceptance of child subscales


Original ICPSR Release:   2017-11-06


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