National Archive of Data on Arts and Culture

This study is maintained and distributed by the National Archive of Data on Arts & Culture (NADAC). NADAC is supported by the National Endowment for the Arts.

Study of Jazz Artists 2001 [United States] (ICPSR 35593)

Principal Investigator(s): Jeffri, Joan, Columbia University. Teachers College. Research Center for Arts and Culture

Summary:

The Study of Jazz Artists 2001 collected data on the working and living situations of jazz musicians in four cities -- New York, San Francisco, New Orleans, and Detroit. In each city, two surveys were conducted: A conventional random sample of musicians belonging to the American Federation of Musicians and a "respondent-driven sample" of jazz musicians. The American Federation of Musicians Survey collected data from 1,963 American Federation of Musicians members. Interviews were conducted by phone between March 13 and May 23, 2001, using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. For the Respondent-Driven Sample Survey, in-person interviews were completed with a total of 733 jazz musicians during the spring and summer of 2001.

Access Notes

  • The public-use data files in this collection are available for access by the general public. Access does not require affiliation with an ICPSR member institution.

Dataset(s)

DS0:  Study-Level Files
Documentation:
Report.pdf   
DS1:  American Federation of Musicians Survey [United States] - Download All Files (16.188 MB)
Documentation:
Download:
SAS    SPSS    Stata    R    ASCII    Excel/TSV
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup    Other
Analyze Online:
DS2:  Respondent Driven Survey [United States] - Download All Files (15.174 MB)
Documentation:
Download:
SAS    SPSS    Stata    R    ASCII    Excel/TSV
ASCII + SAS Setup    SPSS Setup    Stata Setup    Other
Analyze Online:

Study Description

Citation

Jeffri, Joan. Study of Jazz Artists 2001 [United States]. ICPSR35593-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2015-03-31. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35593.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35593.v1

Export Citation:

  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)

Funding

This study was funded by:

  • David and Lucile Packard Foundation
  • National Endowment for the Arts
  • Grammy Foundation
  • American Federation of Musicians
  • American Federation of Musicians Local 802
  • New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Foundation
  • Nathan Cummings Foundation

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    artist employment, artist unions, artists, arts, arts participation, concerts, costs, discrimination, employment, grants, health care, income, Internet, jazz, music, musicians, performing arts, teachers, wages and salaries, work

Smallest Geographic Unit:    Metro area

Geographic Coverage:    California, Detroit, Louisiana, Michigan, New Orleans, New York (state), New York City, San Francisco, United States

Time Period:   

  • 2001

Date of Collection:   

Unit of Observation:    Individual

Universe:    Jazz musicians in the four metropolitan areas: New York, San Francisco, New Orleans, and Detroit.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

The study was conducted by the Research Center for Arts and Culture at Columbia University under a cooperative agreement with the National Endowment for the Arts and the San Francisco Study Center. Funding for this study was provided by the National Endowment for the Arts, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, Grammy Foundation, American Federation of Musicians, American Federation of Musicians Local 802, New Orleans Jazz and Heritage Foundation, and Nathan Cummings Foundation.

This data collection was previously distributed by the Cultural Policy and the Arts National Data Archive (CPANDA). The CPANDA Identification Number (study number) for the entire data collection is c00015. The CPANDA Identification Number for the American Federation of Musicians Survey is a00046 and for the Respondent Driven Survey is a00048. CPANDA conducted the following processing steps for release of this collection: produced a codebook, checked for undocumented codes, performed consistency checks, provided frequencies, performed recodes, and reformatted the data.

CPANDA performed the following processing steps for confidentiality preservation:

American Federation of Musicians Survey [United States]:

  • CPANDA removed the following variables for confidentiality reasons: Zero, fname, mname, lname, nickname, addr1, addr2, area, prfx, sufx, phtype, area1, prfx2, and sufx2.

Respondent Drive Survey [United States]:

  • CPANDA removed the following variables for confidentiality reasons: c1: name of city; c2: city coordinator; c4: First Name; C5: Last Name; address: Permanent contact address; city; zip; C7: telephone number; c11: Interviewer initials; D2: city born in, and D4: country born in. The following extraneous variables were removed from the data set: page 1 (all values were 1), page2 (all values were 2), page3 (all values were 3), page4 (all values were 4), page5 (all values were 5), page6 (all values were 6), page7 (all values were 7), and page 8 (all values were 8). Recodings were also completed by CPANDA, including: Recoded d1 to age (age categories, ex: 18-24, 25-34, etc.) and removed D1. Recoded C12 to C12r: variable was recoded to a string because the SPSS data format is not compatible with SDA. Also, variable contained dates formatted in such a way as to display as missing data; the transformation process extracted the dates and corrected the formatting issues.
  • In addition, due to the small size of the Detroit sample (59 cases), these cases are not included in the data set.

For additional changes made by ICPSR, please refer to the Codebook Notes provided in the ICPSR Codebooks in this data collection.

Quick facts for this data collection, "How many jazz musicians are there?", are available from the Center for Arts and Cultural Policy Studies (CACPS) at Princeton University.

Methodology

Study Design:   

For the American Federation of Musicians (AFM) Survey, respondents were sent a letter explaining the purpose of the survey prior to being called. A pilot test of the survey was conducted with 25 musicians during March 5, 2001 through March 9, 2001. A random sample of about 15 percent of the membership of the AFM locals was selected in each of the four metropolitan areas included in the study. Participating locals were Detroit local 5, New Orleans local 174-496, New York local 802, and San Francisco local 6. A total of 1,963 interviews were completed -- 938 in New York, 348 in San Francisco, 284 in New Orleans, and 393 in Detroit. Of these, 1,532 respondents were classified as "jazz musicians" based on having answered "yes" to the question, "Do you ever play or sing jazz music?" Interviews were conducted by phone between March 13 and May 23, 2001, using a computer-assisted telephone interviewing system. Because the AFM cannot break out jazz musicians from their membership and in order to compare the results of jazz musicians' comments to those of other musicians, the random sample included all types of musicians.

For the Respondent Driven Survey, a total of 1,200 jazz musicians were interviewed. Interviews ranged from 20 minutes to two hours long. A peer recruitment sampling strategy, known as respondent-driven sampling (RDS), was employed to locate eligible respondents for the RDS study. Created by Cornell University sociologist Douglas Heckathorn, RDS was developed to overcome the biases traditionally associated with chain-referral sampling. (A detailed description of the theory and mathematical underpinnings of this sampling method may be found in the article, "Finding the beat: Using respondent-driven sampling to study jazz musicians," by Douglas D. Heckathorn and Joan Jeffri [Poetics 28 (2001) 307-329].) In-person interviews were completed with a total of 733 jazz musicians during the spring and summer of 2001 -- 264 in New York, 300 in San Francisco, 110 in New Orleans, and 59 in Detroit. By using respondent-driven sampling, initially selected jazz musicians referred other jazz musicians to the interviewer. The RDS component was necessary because many jazz musicians do not belong to the AFM union or other institutions that could be used to locate and identify them. In addition, jazz musicians tend to have many social networks with other jazz musicians, making RDS particularly appropriate in tapping this hidden population. Due to the small size of the Detroit sample (59 cases), these cases are not included in the data set.

Sample:   

The survey contained a random sample of musicians from American Federation of Musicians' locals.

Using Respondent-Drive Sampling (RDS), initially selected jazz musicians referred other jazz musicians to the interviewer. The referred jazz musicians, in turn, referred others, and so on, until waves of these referrals and interviews produced statistically sound sample sizes.

The confidence level for this survey is 95 percent with a 5 percent margin of error. Figures do not necessarily add up to 100 percent due to multiple answers and don't know/refused.

Time Method:    Cross-sectional

Mode of Data Collection:    computer-assisted telephone interview (CATI), face-to-face interview, telephone interview

Response Rates:    The overall response rate for the American Federation of Musicians Survey is 78.5 percent.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.

Restrictions: Users of the data must agree to the Terms of Use presented on the NADAC Web site and available through the link in each codebook.

Version(s)

Original ICPSR Release:   2015-03-31

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