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Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), 2012 (ICPSR 35335)

Principal Investigator(s): Kim, Sang-Wook, Sungkyunkwan University (South Korea). Survey Research Center


The Korean General Social Survey (KGSS) is the South Korean version of the General Social Survey (GSS), closely replicating the original GSS of the National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago. Each round of the KGSS typically includes the topical module surveys of the International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), and/or the East Asian Social Survey (EASS), an international survey network of four GSS-type surveys from countries in East Asia (including China, Japan, Taiwan, and South Korea). Respondents were asked about their trust of people and institutions, their opinions about Korean society, government performance, politics and political conditions, economic conditions, and voter participation. Additional questions were asked regarding social relationships, household and personal finances, women and family matters, household and family composition, occupation, internet usage, and respondent mental health. Demographic information includes age, sex, education level, household income, employment status, religious preference, political party affiliation, and political philosophy.

Series: Korean General Social Survey (KGSS) Series

Access Notes

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Study Description


Kim, Sang-Wook. Korean General Social Survey (KGSS), 2012. ICPSR35335-v1. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 2014-10-27. https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35335.v1

Persistent URL: https://doi.org/10.3886/ICPSR35335.v1

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  • RIS (generic format for RefWorks, EndNote, etc.)
  • EndNote XML (EndNote X4.0.1 or higher)


This study was funded by:

  • National Research Foundation of Korea

Scope of Study

Subject Terms:    economic conditions, economic policy, education, employment, family structure, gender, gender roles, government performance, household composition, household income, households, income, income distribution, internet use, life events, marriage, mental health, occupations, organizational structure, personal finances, personality, political attitudes, political expectations, political ideologies, political participation, political parties, politics, psychological wellbeing, religious affiliation, religious beliefs, social justice, social status, social values, social welfare, trust (psychology), voter attitudes, wages and salaries

Smallest Geographic Unit:    State

Geographic Coverage:    Asia, Global, South Korea

Time Period:   

  • 2012-06--2012-08

Date of Collection:   

  • 2012-06--2012-08

Unit of Observation:    Individual

Universe:    The adult population aged 18 or over who live in households of Korea.

Data Type(s):    survey data

Data Collection Notes:

More information about Korean General Social Surveys can be found on the Survey Research Center (Sungkyunkwan University) Web site.


Sample:    Consistent with the requirements of ISSP and other GSS-type surveys, the sample for the KGSS is a national sample drawn by full probability sampling procedures. A more convenient quota sampling at the block level is not employed at all, simply because the quota sampling in terms of age and sex criteria, for instance, is vulnerable to a variety of misuses and abuses that result in serious sampling biases. The target universe of the KGSS is the adult population aged 18 or over who live in households of Korea. From this universe, a total of 2,000 individuals are sampled by the three-stage area probability sampling method. The total number of sample blocks (or clusters) is 200, and some 10 individuals are sampled from each block. First, the total sample blocks are distributed to 16 do's or si's at the province level, proportionate to the distribution of households in Korea. Second, in accordance with the PPS principle, a number of dong's and/or myun's (ward level administrative districts in cities and rural counties, respectively) are selected proportional to the number of sample blocks assigned to each province. Third, from each dong and myun selected, one sample block-tong-ban in dong or ri in myun-is randomly selected. Fourth, in each tong-ban or ri selected, about 10 households are randomly selected, a list is made of adult members aged 18 or over in each household with their dates of birth on it, and the person who has the birth date occurring first during the year is selected. For instance, in a household whose members have birthdays in April, February, November, and August, the very person with the birthday in February becomes the respondent. The multistage element in these sequential sampling procedures serves to narrow down the hierarchically stratified geographic areas into the lowest sample blocks, thereby enhancing the sample representativeness, while the cluster component there serves to maximize the efficiency of fieldwork operations.

Time Method:    Cross-sectional

Weight:    The data are not weighted, however, this collection contains a weight variable (WEIGHT) that can be used in analysis. No additional information was provided about the weight.

Mode of Data Collection:    face-to-face interview

Response Rates:    Approximately 60 percent.

Extent of Processing:   ICPSR data undergo a confidentiality review and are altered when necessary to limit the risk of disclosure. ICPSR also routinely creates ready-to-go data files along with setups in the major statistical software formats as well as standard codebooks to accompany the data. In addition to these procedures, ICPSR performed the following processing steps for this data collection:

  • Created online analysis version with question text.
  • Checked for undocumented or out-of-range codes.


Original ICPSR Release:   2014-10-27



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